In 2019, UNICEF and partners plan for:
children under 5 years with SAM admitted for treatment
people accessing safe water of the agreed quantity and quality for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene
school-aged children, including adolescents, accessing quality education
2019 requirements: US$124,093,133
Displacement due to conflict is at crisis levels in Ethiopia, and the number of affected people is expected to increase as the country continues to undergo political transformation and democratization. As of October 2018, 2.8 million people,1 including 1.5 million children, were displaced, and Ethiopia has the second highest number of refugees and asylum seekers in Africa at 920,000.2 The peace agreement signed with Eritrea led to more than 14,000 new arrivals between 12 September and 20 October and a continued influx is expected for 2019.3 Refugees and internally displaced persons, particularly women and girls, require protection assistance due to reports of the inequitable distribution of humanitarian resources based on ethnicity, as well as violence, rape and intimidation. Protection monitoring remains limited in Ethiopia. Seasonal climate-related floods and droughts affect specific regions, compounding acute food insecurity, malnutrition and water shortages, mostly in pastoral and highland areas. Throughout Ethiopia, nearly 8 million people,4 including 4.2 million children,5 require food assistance and 370,000 children require treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM).6 Disease outbreaks, including of measles and acute watery diarrhoea, pose an ongoing threat. The limited number of operational partners, insecurity and inaccessibility due to poor infrastructure continue to hamper humanitarian assistance.
2019 programme targets
- 386,456 children under 5 years with SAM admitted for treatment15
- 2,965,000 children received vitamin A supplementation16
- 441,000 women and children under 5 years accessing essential maternal and child health services17
- 15,000 people affected by acute watery diarrhoea accessing life-saving curative interventions
- 40,270 children immunized against measles (refugees)18
- 3,688,000 people accessing safe water of the agreed quantity and quality for drinking, cooking and personal hygiene19
- 2.12 million people reached with key messages to promote hygiene behaviour practices20
- 77,000 children reached with psychosocial support services21
- 4,400 unaccompanied and separated children reunified with their families and/or placed in appropriate alternative care
- 370,017 school-aged children, including adolescents, accessing quality education22
In 2019, UNICEF will focus on providing an integrated response to displacement triggered by conflict and seasonal climatic shocks. This includes preventing disease outbreaks, addressing malnutrition and ensuring the centrality of protection in all programme interventions. UNICEF will provide assistance to people in need and hard-to-reach populations through its eight field offices7 and UNICEF-supported mobile teams, and leverage its cluster leadership role to influence how partners prioritize resources and interventions.8 The response will prioritize providing life-saving services, including the detection and treatment of SAM cases and the prevention and treatment of disease by providing essential medicines, strengthening response systems and developing the skills of health professionals. The water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) response will focus on life-saving activities and building resilient water and sanitation infrastructure. UNICEF will invest in mitigating and preventing gender-based violence to address the protection risks faced by refugees and internally displaced persons, particularly girls. Through the Ministry of Education and regional education bureaus, UNICEF will advocate for flexible, accelerated access to education for displaced children. In line with the New Ways of Working and the Grand Bargain commitments, UNICEF will establish and strengthen new and existing partnerships to invest in durable solutions, resilience and capacity development.
Results from 2018
As of 31 October 2018, UNICEF had US$49.1 million available against the US$123.8 million appeal (40 per cent funded).9 UNICEF reached 5.5 million people with life-saving interventions. Direct humanitarian assistance was provided to people affected by conflict-related displacement along four regional borders, as well as floods and disease outbreaks, including of acute watery diarrhoea, measles and yellow fever. UNICEF also continued to assist Eritrean, Somali and South Sudanese refugees. Planned results were met across all sectors, except in education, due to the 63 per cent funding gap. All sectors revised their targets upward at mid-year to accommodate the number of internally displaced persons, which increased from 1.6 million in January to 2.8 million10 in October. A decrease in the number of acute watery diarrhoea cases is strongly correlated with investments made in early detection, efficient surveillance systems, rapid and coordinated response mechanisms and communication for development initiatives. UNICEF co-led the nutrition, WASH and education clusters and the child protection sub-cluster, providing dedicated full-time support to coordination and information management. Direct technical support was provided to the National Disaster Risk Management Commission to prepare contingency plans and conduct seasonal assessments.
UNICEF requires US$124.1 million to meet the humanitarian needs of women and children in Ethiopia in 2019.23 The cost per sector incorporates the needs on the ground, agreed targets and UNICEF and partner capacities to deliver. The costs reflect an increase in the targeted number of beneficiaries for nutrition and WASH compared with the 2018 Humanitarian Action for Children appeal. The cost of reaching new refugee arrivals is also included.
1 International Organization for Migration Displacement Tracking Matrix, ‘Ethiopia National Dashboard Round 11 May-June 2018’, IOM, July 2018; Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ‘Ethiopia: Gedeo-West Guji displacement crisis - situation update no. 7’, OCHA, 17 August 2018; and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ‘Humanitarian Bulletin: Ethiopia’, issue 66, OCHA, 15-28 October 2018.
2 There are 919,938 registered refugees and asylum seekers. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 31 August 2018; and UNHCR update on Eritrean influx, 20 October 2018.
3 UNHCR update on Eritrean influx, 20 October 2018.
4 In the second half of 2018, some 7.95 million people required food assistance. Government of Ethiopia and Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ‘2018 Ethiopia Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan: Mid-year review’, OCHA, October 2018.
5 Using the 53 per cent breakdown as per the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia.
6 ‘2018 Ethiopia Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan: Mid-year review’.
7 Field Offices: Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Oromia, Somali, Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s and Tigray regions.
8 UNICEF Ethiopia co-leads the nutrition, WASH and education clusters and the child protection sub-cluster.
9 Available funds include US$36.2 million received against the current appeal and US$12.9 million carried forward from the previous year.
10 ‘Ethiopia National Dashboard Round 11 May-June 2018’; ‘Ethiopia: Gedeo-West Guji displacement crisis - situation update no. 7’; and ‘Humanitarian Bulletin: Ethiopia’.
11 ‘2018 Ethiopia Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan: Mid-year review’.
12 Using the 53 per cent breakdown as per the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia.
13 This figure is based on the highest programme coverage target of access to water, which includes 3.7 million refugees, asylum seekers and internally displaced persons, of which nearly 2 million are children.
14 This is the total child target population based on the 53 per cent breakdown as per the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia.
15 This includes 16,451 refugees (including 8,663 South Sudanese, 6,623 Somali and 1,165 Eritrean refugees).
16 This figure refers to vitamin A supplementation to be provided in Somali, Afar, Gambella and Benishangul-Gumuz regions and Gedeo-West Guji zones.
17 This refers to women and children under 5 years receiving services through mobile health and nutrition teams in the Somali and Afar regions.
18 This total includes infants aged 0 to 4 months, totalling 31,367.
19 The agreed quantity is in line with national guidelines.
20 Positive hygiene practices include correct handwashing and sanitation practices. The indicator will measure the number of people reached through hygiene promotion activities.
21 Psychosocial support, including access to child-friendly spaces with multi-sectoral programming interventions.
22 This indicator includes children accessing formal or non-formal early learning, pre-primary, primary and secondary education. This includes accelerated school readiness, temporary learning spaces, school-based psychosocial support and learning materials.
23 The revised 2018 HDRP does not allocate a funding commitment to each agency. Therefore there is no inter-agency appeal, per se; just an HDRP budget that is costed against activities. Several of the indicators in this appeal are not also HDRP targets (for example in health). UNICEF’s Humanitarian Action for Children appeal represents the organization’s funding request against its commitment to meet the HDRP targets and the refugee response.
24 A cost analysis was done at the unit cost level for each of these target results. This considered the targets achieved and cost per funds expended in 2018. Based on the trend, the overall unit cost of achieving the target result was reduced, which is why there is a reduction in terms of the resources needed and an increase in the targets across all sectors.
25 This total includes the costs for two activity results not highlighted: 1) number of households who have received two insecticide-treated bed nets in malaria-endemic areas; and 2) number of people with access to health care facilities stocked with emergency drugs and supplies for three months.