Child and youth participation resource guide

Participation in programme areas


Protection from abuse, violence and exploitation

Kathmandu Declaration from the South and Central Asia Convergence of Working Children. 25-27 August 2005. Supported by a range of organizations (including Save the Children).

The Kathmandu Declaration was developed by 40 working children’s representatives from Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Tajikistan who came together for a 3 day gathering in August 2005. Their declaration highlights both the positive and negative aspects of child work, whilst emphasising action to end hazardous forms of child work, as well as exploitation, discrimination and abuse which is commonly faced by many child workers. A set of recommendations outlining action to be taken at national, regional and international levels are presented. Furthermore, ongoing support should be given to strengthening their own working children’s movements at local, national, regional and international levels, and working children should be actively involved in law, policy and programme developments affecting them.

Act Now!
International Save the Children Alliance, 2005 (Clare Feinstein, Ravi Karkara, and Theodore Talbot)

 These are highlights from children's participation in the Regional Consultations for the United Nations Secretary General's Study on Violence against Children. More that 260 children and young people participated in the nine regional consultations for the UN Study and expressed their views and was involved in decisions that can lead to concrete action. The Study and the national/regional consultations held around the world during 2005 provided a platform for effective and meaningful participation of girls and boys. Children and young people have a right to be partners and their experience and resources should be utilized. They participated in preparatory meetings prior to each of the regional consultations, thereby providing them with an opportunity to explore with peers the issues relating to violence and design the nature of their participation in the consultations that followed.

Children’s Actions to End Violence against Girls and Boys
A contribution to the United Nations Study on Violence against Children Save the Children 2005  (Ravi Karkara and Shoma Jabeen)

This report is a compilation of case studies and activities which show how children from countries around the world have organized themselves into a collective force to combat various kinds of violence. The report focuses on how girls and boys are making decision-makers and care-givers accountable, and forming child-led organizations and initiatives to take collective action against violence. Also ,helps to illustrate, from a child’s perspective, the sliding scale that makes up the social definitions of violence – the sliding scale that allows acts of violence against children to be treated so differently from the same acts when committed against adults, when they are considered crimes. Too often acts of violence towards children are not normally regarded as violence at all. This publication attests to the fact that nobody is free of violence and that every day there are more lessons in violence acted out around us – but it is at the same time motivational to see the innovation in the responses. Working to prevent violence and reduce its impact where it occurs, requires integrated partnerships and broad networks of expertise that can recognize and respond to the ways in which forms of violence and violations of children’s rights are interlinked.

Voices and Action of Girls and Boys to end Violence against Children in South and Central Asia, Neha Bhandari, Save the Children Sweden, 2005

The discussion paper analyses South and Central Asia's children's expressions, views, concerns and priorities on violence against girls and boys in various settings. The paper is divided into five kinds of violence: physical and degrading/humiliating punishments, child sexual abuse, commercial and sexual exploitation (including child trafficking) of boys and girls, gender-based violence and children in conflict with law. The document gives a regional perspective while showcasing children’s actions and recommendations on violence against children.

Safe You Safe Me
Save The Children Sweden 2006Written by: Ravi Karkara, Fahmida Shoma Jabeen, Neha Bhandari
This is a Save the Children contribution to the United Nations Secretary-General's Study on Violence against Children. A book for young children aged 7-12 on violence, it is a tool to make children aware of violence, describing what children themselves are doing to prevent it and what they want to be done.

Progress or Progression: Reviewing Children’s Participation in the UN Study on Violence against Children, 2003–2006 – Executive Summary
Save the Children Sweden 2008, Neha Bhandari

This is a summary of the key outcomes, achievements and lessons learned in involving children and young people in the UN Study from the perspective of Save the Children. It also details the key suggestions to improve children’s participation in similar future processes. This will also help a better understanding of the findings contained within this review.

Progress or Progression: Reviewing Children’s Participation in the UN Study on Violence against Children, 2003–2006 Save the Children Sweden ,2008 (Clare Feinstein)'s%20participation%20in%20the%20UN%20Study%20on%20Violence%20Against%20Children%202003-2006.pdf

This report summarizes the progress and lessons learned since the 2002 Special Session on Children based on Save the Children’s support to the involvement of children. It serves as an inspiring tool, with key learning from the successes as well as the constraints of children’s participation in the UN Study process. Accordingly, it is hoped that children’s participation can be further strengthened in current follow-up processes, and those that will continue in the future. This report has been written for Save the Children as a means to help integrate the learning from this process into other current and future Save the Children processes, especially its worldwide programming to address violence against boys and girls and its efforts to promote the systematic involvement of children and young people in the development of national plans and systems to follow up the Study’s key recommendations. An additional document outlining the process and outcome of Save the Children’s overall contribution to the UN Study is planned for 2008 while an overall evaluation of the impact of Save the Children’s involvement is planned for 2009.

Children, Agency and Violence: In and beyond the United Nations Study on Violence against Children IRC, UNICEF, 2009 Natasha Blanchet-Cohen

This paper examines the role of child agency as it relates to child protection. The focus arises from recognition that child protection approaches can be ineffective, and even counterproductive, when local context is not given sufficient attention . The prevailing child protection models – child rescue, social services and medical models – commonly neglect local community assets, including the role of children themselves. Yet in many cases these assets may play a critical role, particularly when family and community are the primary line of defense to protect children from violence and exploitation. Rethinking child protection from a rights perspective requires building on empirical and theoretical understandings of child agency and child development, and the interactions between them.

The first section of the paper begins by reviewing the literature on child agency, identifying what is  understood (or not understood) about child agency in relation to child protection. The review itself also only examines materials produced in preparation for the UN Secretary-General’s Report on Violence against Children and the World Report on Violence against Children .

The concluding section of this paper argues that the use of child agency, or its closer realignment to child participation, will help to reveal how child protection initiatives and practices have often failed to recognize the role of context and the environment-dependent nature of child development. Reframing child protection through the lens of child agency recognizes the multifaceted, everchanging nature of family and societal structures, and draws attention to the individual in relation to the multitude of contextual factors that affect and are affected by the child. Embracing child agency will create opportunities to devise interventions to address violence against children at the individual, collective or proxy levels.

Mapping of tools for working with men and boys to end violence against girls, boys and women

Syed Saghir Bukhari and Ravi Karkara Save the Children Sweden 2006

The purpose of the mapping is to provide avenues to enable practitioners to address violence against girls, boys, and women through active partnership with men and boys within their current interventions by equipping them with necessary and effective tools that can easily be adapted into local contexts. The scope of this mapping is to build a resource for building capacities of people/organisations for further work on male involvement. It has to be noted that due to geographic variations particularly in terms of cultures and resulting norms and values of different societies, the documented tools often do not have the scope to be applied directly in South and Central Asian societies. However there is an immense possibility to contextualize and adapt these tools into our region. Several organisations and people within our region are already adapting these tools as part of their work. To compile tools for working with men and boys on ending violence against women, girls, and boys. The mapping of tools for working with men and boys to end violence against girls, boys and women, takes this commitment a step ahead. The tools have been complied, so as to enable practitioners to add value to their current interventions by adapting them to their context. The mapping also attempts to create linkages between the growing community of people and organisations working with men and boys to end violence. The toolkit consists of two parts. The first part presents tools from the South Asian region, including campaigns, tools and IEC material (films, posters etc.) on working with men and boys. The second part presents campaigns, tools and IEC material (films, posters, etc.) on working with men and boys, from around the world.

Strategies and tools for working with men and boys to end violence against girls, boys, women and other men
Save the Children Sweden and UNIFEM 2005( Neha Bhandari)
27 participants representing various organizations in South Asia participated in the workshop aimed at developing “Strategies and Tools for Working with Men and Boys to end Violence against Girls, Boys, Women and other Men”. The workshop was jointly organized by UNIFEM South Asia office and Save the Children Sweden, Regional Programme for South and Central Asia. Violence against women and girls and violence, in general, is an issue, which almost all of us in the region have been forced to confront. Therefore in creation of a more gender equitable society, preventing violence against women and girls needs to be given prime importance. Within this work, there is also an urgent need to include boys and men. It is dialogue begun by women who, against incredible odds and often with tremendous courage, have mounted a challenge to the male-dominated societies that have denied them their fundamental rights, that have denied them equality and fairness and that have left far too many experiencing violence or the threat of violence on a daily basis.

“It feels like it’s the end of the world” Cape Town’s young people talk about gangs and community violence.
Report to the Institute for Security Studies on the child participation study in support of the COAV Cities Project. Cape Town, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council Ward, C.L. (2006).

This report shares the views of children and young people in Cape Tow who are affected by gangs and community violence. The project seeks to develop recommendations for policy and practice in relation to the problem of children’s involvement in gangs in the Cape Town Metropole. This study was intended to augment work being undertaken for the COAV Cities Project by enabling the views of children to be included in the policy recommendations that will be developed. The report followed by an analysis of the children’s responses including their recommendations for prevention and intervention). In the results section of the report key findings are shared including: children’s description of violence and gang activity in children’s communities; perceptions of why children join gangs; and preventing and intervening in gangsterism. Discussions are then presented including: the context of child development (including a summary of children’s views of risk and protective factors and suggestions for intervention); the process of becoming a gangster (prosocial and antisocial path); child rights and violent neighbours; and recommendations for intervention – at the macrosystem level (policies), the exosystem level (in particular a focus on effective policing); at the microsystem level (including interventions to support their families and to create safer schools); and at the individual level (supporting children to make more positive choices, for example about drug use and involvement in gang violence). Most of the recommendations the children made were with regard to prevention.

Promotion of protagonist and meaningful participation of children and adolescents exposed to violence
Save the children Sweden 2008

This study is the first stage of a research intended to respond two final questions:
How can children and adolescents exert their right to participate in direct prevention strategies for all forms of violence? (2. )How can the children and adolescents who have suffered some kind of violence be involved in the design of strategies and interventions, and at the same time, how can they be prevented from becoming exposed or re-victimised and/or stigmatised? The subjects of this study are children and adolescents in general and their needs to participate in the prevention of physical and humiliating punishment, children and adolescents who are victims of sexual exploitation and abuse, and children and adolescents involved in organised armed violence.
This study proposes the following starting objectives: (1). Preparing a conceptual framework to understand children’s participation in cases of children and adolescents at risk of violence, with an emphasis on the cases of physical and humiliating punishment, sexual exploitation and abuse and organised armed violence. (2.) Gathering existing information at regional and global level in order to analyse the participation of children and adolescents exposed to violence1 and identify the gaps and difficulties from a right-based approach.

Children’s right to be heard and effective child protection. A guide for Governments and children rights advocates on involving children and young people in ending all forms of violence Save the Children Sweden ,Carolyne Willow

This publication has gone under the skin of Article 12 to explore what it really means for children and their rights, what is expected of adults in different roles and the scale of change. It has drawn upon a wide range of perspectives and experiences, increasingly documented from all parts of the world, and sought to identify common challenges and pitfalls and ways of avoiding them. The aim is to make participation ordinary and instinctive. In chapter 4, a framework was offered by which actions can be judged against each of the different elements of Article 12. This is to encourage a coherent and systematic approach, moving participation away from one-off projects and events towards making it the routine business of all our organizations and work settings. Yet, this book deliberately avoids presenting a ready-made blueprint for change because of the enormity of what is required, the progressive nature of human rights implementation and the individual contributions we all have to make. Children continually stress that they want authentic and respectful relationships with adults, in all our different roles: the starting point for this is reflecting on how we were treated as children, critically looking at the position of children in society today, understanding the radical vision and detailed legal obligations of the Convention, and considering how we can better communicate respect and understanding in our daily interactions with children.

What Children Say
Save the Children Sweden Southeast Asia and the Pacific, 2006 (Harriot Beazley, Sharon Bessell, Judith Ennew and Roxana Waterson)

This publication, What children say: Results of comparative research on physical and emotional punishment of children in Southeast, East Asia and the Pacific, 2005, is the result of an unprecedented study of children’s experiences of corporal punishment, coordinated between teams from eight different countries in Southeast and East Asia and the Pacific., involving more than 3,000 children and over 1,000 adults. The research followed a 12-Step process designed for scientific research on the physical and emotional punishment of children, from conception to dissemination of results, while a code of ethics was maintained throughout the exercise.  Researchers were responsible for making sure that the research did no harm to the children, and that participation in research was voluntary. The last ten years of research with children and about childhood has shown that children can be excellent research informants, but that their lack of power may prevent them from expressing their views or describing their experiences. Children have valid perspectives and undeniable knowledge, and are as reliable (or unreliable) as adults as research partners.

Pulling a face at sexual exploitation
Pulling a face at sexual exploitation” celebrates the participation of children and adolescents in World Congress III. The report has been written especially for children and adolescents, taking into account the suggestions of children and adolescents at World Congress III on what it should contain. During the Preparatory Forum, a Report Working Group was formed, involving about 10 adolescents from different regions of the world. The group helped design this report by providing ideas on what the report should look like and what kind of information it should present. Based on these ideas, in this report you will find the main highlights of adolescent participation in the Preparatory Forum and World Congress III. What is also special about this report is that many adolescents from the Report Working Group contributed to it by providing their stories and sharing their thoughts and feelings on what was going on around them in the Congress.

Children’s and Adolescent’s participation and Protection from Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
UNICEF , IRC 2009 Clare Feinstein and Claire O’Kane

This paper presents an overview of government commitments concerning children’s andadolescents’ participation in the fight against sexual abuse and exploitation; children’s and adolescents’ own recommendations to end sexual abuse and exploitation of children; and inspiring case studies that provide concrete recommendations for strengthening children’s and adolescents’ involvement in child protection. An earlier version of this paper was presented as a contribution to deliberations at the World Congress III against Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents. This study has been undertaken with guidance and contributions from the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF Adolescent Development and Participation Unit and child participation and protection practitioners from a range of organizations in different parts of the world.

Good Practices for Working with Experiential & Artist Youth
ECPAT International,2007

This good practice guide presents the introduction, and then the reaction by youth in the age range of 13 to 17 to Youth Partnership Project (YPP) programs, which are based on a peer support approach. As a general experience, when young people first joined the project, they felt as though their opinions were unimportant. With the support of their new friends, they soon volunteered to join the project as a peer Supporter. Through peer support training, they gradually learned about the sexual exploitation of children, child rights and how to effectively share this information with others. They also met other survivors during YPP discussion sessions and this helped to reduce her sense of isolation and strengthened their ability to protect them from harm in the future.

Ensuring Meaningful Child and Youth Participation in the fight against CSEC: the ECPAT Experience
ECPAT International 2007

The meaningful participation of children and young people (CYP) in combating commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is an integral part of ECPAT’s work. As this report illustrates, the participation of children and young people occurs at many different levels within our global network: from the design, development, management and monitoring of programs at the grassroots level to policy influencing and advocacy at national, regional and international levels. Creating opportunities for these children to take on leadership roles within their communities or organizations helps build their sense of resilience and empowerment while at the same time, promoting social mobilization to fight against sexual violence and exploitation. This report illustrates a number of children’s initiatives against commercial sexual exploitation from around the world. Strengthening ECPAT’s child and youth participation has been a process of exploration and innovation which is still at its early stages of refinement and development. As children and youth have been mobilized for social action, the resource needs (both in human resources and financially) have become more apparent. However, if we recognize children’s participation as a fundamental part of the strategy to achieve children’s protection from sexual exploitation, then we are also recognizing our own responsibility to uphold children’s fundamental rights.

 Youth Partnership Project Guidelines: YPP Peer Support Programme

 ECPAT International,2008  Written by Vimala A. Crispin, Rajan Burlakoti and the YPP Nepal team.

The Youth Partnership Project (YPP) for Child Survivors of Commercial Sexual Exploitation (CSEC) is a global initiative that endeavors to have a positive psychosocial impact and improve the lives of children affected by CSEC. The YPP is a model of best practice in children’s participation, which has a significant psychosocial impact on children in need by increasing their resilience, confidence, creativity, self-esteem and developing social and life skills. The goal of the project is to ensure children’s right to actively and meaningfully participate particularly in social change and work against CSEC. Youth trained in Peer Support techniques for assisting youth at risk and survivors of trafficking and CSEC in local schools and shelters located in areas where there are high rates of trafficking.

Youth Partnership Project: Empowering Youth to Fight Trafficking &the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children-Youth Micro Projects

ECPAT International, 2009Written by Vimala A. Crispin,YPP South Asia youth, country teams, Aparajeyo-Bangladesh, Maiti Nepal, SANLAAP and ECPAT International staff.

This booklet shows how these projects are conceived, implemented and supported by youth, as well as share examples of successful YPP micro projects from South Asia. The YPP aims to address the concerns and suggestions voiced in the Children’s Statement of the 2nd World Congress against CSEC (2001) through consultations with children in the 3 project countries. The YPP guiding principles have been adopted from UNICEF’s 1998 principles of psychosocial interventions for children. The YPP Micro Project Scheme is enabling disadvantaged children and young people to develop and implement initiatives that they themselves have identified as priorities. The goal of the micro projects is to encourage creative thinking among youth groups, inspiring them to develop activities of their own design. Projects are often linked to YPP trainings and core YPP Peer Support and Advocacy activities. The age range of children and young people range from 6 to 18.

Young Person’s Guide to CST
Written by Stephanie Delaney, based upon information contained in the ECPAT International
guide Child-Sex Tourism Questions and Answers, 2007.

 Being abused through child-sex tourism can cause a lot of harm to children and young people. However children and young people can play important roles in the fight to end child-sex tourism, and as a young person, there are many things that they  can do.
This guide shows through a series of case studies what the visible and hidden consequences of child abuse are: like pregnancy, being commercially sexually exploited, and physical problems. They may also take drugs or drink alcohol to try and make themselves feel better. Another common problem that children face is being isolated and rejected. They may not be accepted if they go back to their families It can be difficult to stop a bad situation, but this guide encourages them to seek help and speak out on these issues.

Young  Person’s Guide to Trafficking in Children and Young People
Written by Stephanie Delaney, based upon information contained in the ECPAT Europe Law Enforcement Group/ECPAT International guide Combating the Trafficking in Children for Sexual Purposes-Questions and Answers, 2006.

In this guide, case studies and stories by children and young people between the ages of 9 and 18 tell their sad stories. Often children and young people are more desperate to escape their situation and can be easily persuaded and tricked into thinking that there are better chances for them in another place. To help children and young people overcome all that has happened to them very important and  prepare them to learn new ways of having relationships (that are not abusive) and how to make friends, as they have missed out on education. They may need help in learning new skills so that they can get a job and support themselves and their families when they are older. They also need justice and advocacy to make sure that their rights are upheld.

Young People’s Voices on Child Trafficking: Experiences from South Eastern Europe

UNICEF ,  IRC 2008 Mike Dottridge

This report demonstrates that when children who have been trafficked are given the opportunity to make their experiences known and to express their views, they provide important insights. They are ‘experts’ on the factors that make children vulnerable, their reasons for leaving home, and their special needs regarding prevention, assistance and protection. Children and young people have an important role to play in helping to identify areas for intervention, design relevant solutions and act as strategic informants of research.
The report is organized into three sections that highlight the various phases of the trafficking process. Practical recommendations have been identified at the end of each section. These are intended to inform the protection of children who have already been trafficked and a broader group of children who are at risk of, or are victims of, various forms of exploitation and abuse.
The study was limited to children who were trafficked before reaching the age of 18, who received institutional assistance during their recovery, and who were willing to talk about their experience and to participate in the study.

Children Speak Out Save The Children 2007 Trafficking Risk and Resilience in Southest Europe (Zosa De Sas Kropiwnicki)

 This research report provides an in-depth analysis of children’s perception of risk and resiliency in respect to trafficking. In addition to prevention, protection and reintegration strategies, Save the Children’s Child Trafficking Response Programme (CTRP) conducted a qualitative, participatory and child-centered research project in seven countries/entities in Southeast Europe, namely Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and the United Nations Administered Province of Kosovo. This report presents the collective views of children across the region who present their fears as well as their hopes and dreams and give valuable new insight and understanding to anyone who is committed to improve children's lives, protect them from abuse and exploitation and help them fulfill their aspirations. This study has provided valuable information about how to structure or change future policies and practices on the basis of children’s perceptions. As a general conclusion, it is evident that instead of focusing only on scaring children, anti-trafficking messages and accompanying interventions should be based on children’s perceptions, enhance children’s strengths, develop their decision-making skills and thereby help them to develop survival strategies in situations that might increase the risk of trafficking.

Participation of working and street children

Each& Every Child
Plan 2007, Dr Patricia Ray and Sarah Carter

This report proposes a framework that can help staff think about working with those children whose rights are most violated and who are living in some of the poorest and most difficult situations in the world.
This report discusses the challenges that confront Plan and other child-focused organizations as they seek to assist these groups of children from an integrated child centered and rights based development perspective.
Organizations have mainly worked with these children under 18 years of age according to different categories, such as street children, children in conflict with the law and children in the worst forms of child labor. However, many children have multiple problems and belong to more than one category or move between categories over time. Many of the root causes and factors that impact on the lives of these children are similar. There is therefore the need to develop a more holistic approach, particularly in terms of prevention.


Report on a Children’s Participation Process Towards a South African Child Labour Programme
Research report on the children’s focus group process written by Glynis ClachertyResearchers: Kgethi Matshai, Jessie Kgomongoe, Musa Dlamini, Glynis Clacherty, 2006

The research discussed in this report was conducted as part of a process of formulating a national child labor action programme for South Africa. It was aimed at obtaining the views of children doing work that may potentially be detrimental to their development. The South African government has embarked on a process towards the formulation of appropriate policies and a national action programme to combat child labour. The Department of Labor is the lead department. The first step in this process was to develop a reliable and credible database on child labor in the country. The 2002 survey is referred to as the Survey of Activities of Young People or SAYP. The survey results provide a national quantitative picture of child labor in the country, and give an appreciation of the different categories of working children who are most in need or who are at the greatest risk.). Findings of the SAYP included that 36% (4,8m) of South Africa’s 13,4m children were doing at least three hours of ‘economic’ work a week, or five hours or more per week of school-related work, or seven hours or more of household chores, more than 30% of the children aged five to fourteen years who are engaged in economic activities appear to be working in contravention of the law.

South and Central Asia Convergence of Working Children, 25-27
August 2005, Save the Children Sweden, 2006

Forty children representing national, regional, and local working children’s  organisations in South and Central Asia came together at this landmark event, organised in Nepal. The report captures the processes and outcome of this event. The children clearly defined their position on child labour discourses that while they do not accept the hazardous and exploitative forms of labour, they also refuse the complete elimination of work without prior planned and appropriate alternatives provided by their respective governments. They also reiterated their demand for work with dignity, education, standard wage and hours of work and protection. A Kathmandu Declaration was released by the representatives of the working children at end of the event.

The Super sisters in the savage streets: a guide for supporting street children, INCIDIN and Save the Children, Sweden-Denmark. 2006.

This book is an outcome of a study carried out by Integrated Community Industrial Development in Bangladesh (INCIDIN Bangladesh) in cooperation with 117 girls working on the street. The main aim of the study was to explore the girls’ situation and to assess the quality of existing programmes for girls living and working on the streets, creating an in-depth understanding of the push-pull factors involved as well as the problems as seen through the girls’ eyes.

Ancheta-Templa Mae Fe, et al., Understanding Children in Conflict with the Law: Contradictions on victimization, survivor behaviour and the Philippines justice system. A study of the situation of children in conflict with the law in Davao, Save the Children UK, Manila, 2005.
This study examines the situation and context of children in conflict with the law in Davao City and their experiences with the juvenile justice system. The study involved all stakeholder groups, including children with personal experience of the justice system. It provides insights into many gaps in the fulfilment of the civil rights of children in contact with the law, such as lack of standard procedures in case handlings, violation of protocols in the handling of children, absence of policies and guidelines in the law enforcement systems and unclear roles and functions of court social workers.

Barker, Gary, Engaging Young Men in Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion, Instituto PROMUNDO, Brazil, 2002. (Also available in PDF)
This report shares experiences in working with young men in violence prevention and in promoting reproductive and sexual health. It emphasizes the need to focus more on young men to redress gender inequalities. It also gives recommendations for the active involvement of young men in these programmes.

Brown, Nicole A., Promoting Adolescent Livelihoods, A discussion paper prepared for the Commonwealth Youth Programme and UNICEF, 2001.
This paper examines young people’s economic contributions and livelihoods. It looks at adolescents and their motivations for economic participation and examines issues of gender, education, enterprise and sustainable livelihoods, conflict situations and HIV/AIDS. It makes recommendations for improving livelihood opportunities for adolescents.

Caouette, Therese M., Small Dreams Beyond Reach: The lives of migrant children and youth along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand, A participatory action research project, Save the Children UK, Bangkok, 2001.
This participatory action research was undertaken by Save the Children to fill the gap in knowledge in regard to the growing numbers of children and youth migrating across the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand. Migrant children and youth were involved in every step of the research process.

de Castro, Elizabeth Protacio, Faye A. G. Balanon, Agnes Zenaida V. Camacho, et al., Integrating Child Centred Approaches in Children’s Work. Programme on Psychosocial Trauma and Human Rights, Center for Integrative and Development Studies, University of the Philippines, Save the Children (UK) Philippines and UP CIDS PST, ISBN 971-742-079-3, 2002.
This is a report of a workshop conducted by UP CIDS PST with partner NGOs under the programme for abused and exploited children. It presents experiences of academics and child-rights practitioners on children and childhood, paradigms of children’s work, resiliency, child participation and innovative ways of helping children.

Department for Constitutional Affairs, Involving Children and Young People: Action plan 2004–05, DCA, London, 2004.
This UK Government document provides a strategic framework for children’s participation in the justice system. It explains the rationale for actively involving children and young people, shares the progress made in recent years and highlights key areas for future work. It also includes case study examples.

Dottridge, Mike, Young People’s Voices on Child Trafficking: Experiences from South Eastern Europe, Innocenti Working Paper No. IWP-2008-05. Florence, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2008
Mindful of the important contribution that young people can make to our understanding of the issues that concern them, in 2005 and 2006 UNICEF arranged for children and young people who had been trafficked while under 18 years of age, to be interviewed in their home countries. Interviews were conducted in Albania, Kosovo, Moldova and Romania. Each of the children and young people described their lives before recruitment, their experiences during exploitation, and how they got away from the traffickers. They also spoke of rebuilding their lives once they were free. The interviews formed part of a broader assessment of strategies to counter child trafficking in the region.

Feinstein, Clare, Ravi Karkara and Sophie Laws, A Workshop Report on Child Participation in the UN Study on Violence Against Children, Save the Children Alliance, London, 2004.
This report is based on a workshop organized by Save the Children on children’s participation in the UN Study on Violence Against Children. It explores how children can be involved in the study in meaningful and ethical ways.

Francisco, Carolina, Standing Up for Ourselves! A study on the concepts and practices of young people’s rights to participation, ECPAT International, Manila, 1999.
This book discusses the capacity of and spaces for children to participate in projects and programmes and provides practical guidance for planning and implementation, drawing on the principles of the CRC. It focuses particularly on children’s participation in efforts against the commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth.

Goulet, Lisa E., Out From the Shadows: Good practices in working with sexually exploited youth in the Americas, International Institute for Child Righ ts and Development, ISBN 55058-221-6, University of Victoria, 2001.
The publication is divided into five main sections. The introductory section discusses the extent of the problem facing sexually-exploited children and youth, defines the term ‘good practices’ and the purpose of the project. Part 1 looks at the problem in a global context and describes international instruments for the fight against the exploitation of children. Part 2 discusses the economic, social, and cultural aspects of the sexual exploitation of youth and looks at the situation in light of children’s rights. Part 3 presents a series of case studies that demonstrate elements of good practices in the field. Part 4 concludes with an overview of the key components of good practices during each phase of the exploitation cycle.

Gray, Lawrence, Children at Risk: Practical approaches to addressing child protection issues in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam, World Vision International, 2003.
This report provides practical examples on addressing child protection issues in various countries. It includes examples of children’s participation in their own protection.

Halford, Stuart, Anthea Lawson, Nicola Sharp and Simon Heap, I’m a Teenager: What happened to my rights?, Plan International and Childreach, UK, 2004.
This report argues that the Convention on the Rights of the Child has not been implemented successfully and that many children have not benefited from its commitments and know nothing about the rights they are entitled to. The report states that there are many threats to children’s rights that the CRC has failed to eliminate. It examines 15 of the biggest issues children face in their teenage years and looks at ways that teenagers, with support from their communities and organizations, are working to realize their rights.

Hood, R. and K. Disbury, Growing Strong: A training manual, Using the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child to support indigenous children, IICRD, Canada and UNICEF, Mexico, 2004.
This manual is designed to facilitate the implementation of the CRC in indigenous communities and contains practical activities and case studies from around the world. It provides a toolkit for community workers and anyone involved in health care, education, social services or child and youth care.

Jackson, Elanor and Marie Wernham, Child Protection Policies and Procedures Toolkit, ChildHope and Consortium for Street Children, London, UK, 2005.
This is a practical learning tool and set of resources for non-government organizations, particularly in developing countries, working with children. It outlines the key principles relevant to child protection and the stages needed to develop, implement and evaluate child protection policies.

Karlsson, Lena and Ravi Karkara, Working with Men and Boys to Promote Gender Equality and to End Violence Against Boys and Girls, Workshop Report, Save the Children Sweden-Denmark, Regional Programme for South and Central Asia, Nepal, 2004.
This workshop was organized to share experiences, approaches and tools to promote better understanding of the concepts of ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’ to address gender discrimination. It includes examples of working with men and boys on gender socialization.

Landgren, Karin, ‘The Protective Environment: Development support for child protection’ in Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 27, 2005.
This article proposes a conceptual framework for programming to develop effective mechanisms and systems to protect children. One of the eight elements of the protective environment framework is children’s knowledge, life skills and participation in their own protection.

Lansdown, Gerison, The Evolving Capacities of the Child, Save the Children and UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 2005.
This report draws on Article 5 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which states that children should receive guidance ‘in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child’. Section 3.3 discusses the issue of balancing protective and participation rights and how children can be effectively involved in their own protection.

Martin, Florence and John Parry-Williams, The Right Not to Lose Hope: Children in conflict with the law – a policy analysis and examples of good practice, Save the Children UK, London, 2005.
This report addresses the issues and concerns facing children who are in conflict with the law. Part I analyses the experiences and situations of these marginalized children in the broader context of their lives. It looks at the failure of care and protection systems and the criminalization of
children’s coping strategies. Part II presents eight community-based projects that involve and support children in conflict with the law in Honduras, Lao PDR, Philippines, Kenya, Ethiopia, China, Uganda and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Newman, Jesse, Voices Out of Conflict: Young people affected by forced migration and political crisis, Post-conference report, Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford, 2004.
This conference report provides a critical discussion of child and youth participation as a form of protection in situations of conflict.

Newman, Jesse, Protection Through Participation: Young people affected by forced migration and political crisis, RSC Working Paper No. 20, Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford, 2005.
This paper explores the importance, possibilities, challenges and limitations of young people’s participation as a way to protect themselves in situations of conflict. It was written before the conference on ‘Voices Out of Conflict’.

Save the Children, Participatory Consultation with Separated Children in Europe, Guidance Pack for Managers, Produced by Save the Children for the NGO Network of the Separated Children in Europe Programme, 2003.
This guidance pack is designed to work with separated children aged 12–18, from a variety of national, cultural and linguistic backgrounds. It is a tool for managers to commission and supervise effective capacity-building activities with children.

Save the Children, 10 Essential Learning Points: Listen and speak out against sexual abuse of girls and boys, Global Submission by the International Save the Children Alliance, UN Study on Violence Against Children, Save the Children Alliance, 2004.
This publication presents the findings of a participatory research study on the sexual abuse of children in 13 countries. It highlights the importance of children’s participation in efforts to protect children from sexual abuse.

Tolfree, David, Whose Children? Separated children’s protection and participation in emergencies, Save the Children Sweden, 2003.
This book analyses fostering, group care and other types of care arrangements for children and adolescents separated in situations of large-scale emergencies.

UNICEF, Combating Child Trafficking, Handbook for Parliamentarians, No. 9, UNICEF, New York and Inter-Parliamentary Union, Geneva, 2005.
This publication provides parliamentarians with recommendations to help prevent child trafficking, assist child victims of trafficking and hold traffickers and people who assist them accountable for their crimes. It includes examples of children’s participation in anti-trafficking programmes.

UNICEF, et al., Protecting the Rights of Children in Conflict with the Law, Inter-Agency Coordination Panel on Juvenile Justice, 2005.
This report presents examples of innovative practices in legal support, alternative sanctions, capacity building, public awareness and advocacy.

World Vision, Strongim pikinini, strongim laef b’long famili, Enabling children to reach their full potential, World Vision, 2005.
Children can be agents of change in their communities. This research started with the premise that there are traditional and modern attitudes and actions in all communities that can empower and protect children. It seeks to learn from communities, families and children in the Pacific (in PNG, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu). It also feeds into the UN Study on Violence Against Children.

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