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Participation resource guide

Participation in programme areas


Emergencies and natural disasters

Anticipating the future
Children and young people’s voices in Haiti’s Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA)
Plan International 2010 ( Me. Emmanuel Lacroix ) The Children’s Voices in the PDNA project, a national consultation with children and young people ages 5-24

On January 12, 2010, a 7.3 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti, causing large scale and widespread damages. An estimated 222,570 people were reported killed and 310,928 injured. Over 1.5 million people are affected and presently displaced from their homes. . Children and youth represent more than half of the population affected by the January 12th earthquake. Children and youth are, on the one hand, among the most vulnerable groups affected by the disaster, yet on the other hand many of them have already mobilized to support their communities in the response and taken on strong leadership roles. Despite this, their voices, needs and priorities have yet to be adequately listened to or taken into consideration. For this reason, Plan International, in partnership with UNICEF, initiated a consultation process with close to 1,000 children and youth throughout Haiti, to hear their ideas and priorities for the country’s reconstruction. Their views were gathered with the purpose of feeding into the PDNA. Local facilitators experienced in working with children and youth conducted 54 focus group consultations in nine departments (West, Artibonite, South- East, North, Grande Anse, Nippes, North-West and North-East, and the South).

Training Manual: Child –led Disaster Risk reduction in Schools and Communities
Save the Children Sweden, 2007

This training manual is based on the experience of the pilot project in tsunami affected provinces in southern Thailand as a guide for organizing activities to strengthen children’s capacity in disaster risk reduction in schools and communities. This manual aims to promote leadership by children and young people in planning, analyzing, and conducting disaster risk-reduction activities. The manual consists of the following topics: Preparation: Getting started, Disaster risk reduction: concepts and definitions, Risk and resource community mapping, An educational campaign on disaster risk reduction.

Child-Led Disaster Risk Reduction: A Practical Guide
Child-led Disaster Risk Reduction: A practical guide

Save the Children, Lynne Benson, Jon Bugge
Save the Children empowers children and young people to become involved in their community's preparedness and mitigation plans. This guide will illustrate the steps that have taken in Asia. Save The Children empowers children and young people to become involved in their communities’ preparedness and mitigation in case of crisis and emergencies. This guide will replicate the Child-led Disaster (CLDRR) Risk Reduction model originally designed and piloted in Cuba. DRR includes the reduction of vulnerability to disaster and the preparedness for when disaster occurs. The implementation of CLDRR means that in the event of disaster fewer lives of both children and community members are lost. The impact of CLDRR is that children are more resilient and the negative impact of disaster on the survivors can be significantly reduced. Save the Children defines CLDRR as a child-centered community based framework where children play leading roles in their communities to minimize the negative impacts of disasters. This will include meaningful and ethical child participation in assessing, planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating DRR based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC).

Children and Disaster Risk Reduction: Taking stock and moving forward http://www.childreninachangingclimate.org/docs/Child%20Led%20DRR_Taking%20Stock.pdf

This report reviews child-focused and child-led disaster risk reduction approaches and techniques. It documents a number of case studies across a range of interventions, dividing these into three main areas: Knowledge, Voice and Action. It makes some observations regarding current practice and recommendations that imply a shift in emphasis going forward. The report coincides with and celebrates the twentieth anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), as well as the development of a new international agreement under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Where the articles in the CRC are particularly relevant they have been highlighted in the report. It contributes to a series of outputs from the Children in a Changing Climate coalition. This Coalition brings together leading research and development organisations, each with a commitment to sharing knowledge, co-ordinating their actions and working with children as protagonists rather than just as passive victims. For more information please visit: www.childreninachangingclimate.org

Strengthening participation girls and boys in Tsunamin response programme
Save the Children Sweden 2005, (Naomi Alfini, Becky Marshall, Ravi Karkara)

This report covers the three-day workshop “Strengthening Participation of Girls and Boys in Tsunami Response Programme” held in Kathmandu from 28 – 30 April 2005, for Save the Children staff, partners and other organizations. The report does not merely present the workshop proceedings but is also intended to serve as a handy guide and reference book, enabling participants to refer back to the workshop contents. Participatory and interactive sessions were used and included acombination of presentations, tools analysis exercises, group work and narratives. Girls and boys from Child Brigade in Bangladesh and Helping Unit for Media in Afghanistan (HUMA) were invited as resource persons to share their experiences in responding to natural and man made disasters respectively.  This pioneering workshop provided a platform for cross regional exchange among many professionals who are working on the quest to strengthen children’s participation. Participatory and interactive sessions were used and included a combination of presentations, tools analysis exercises, group work and narratives.

Promoting Child-Friendly and Child Centred Disaster Risk Reduction in Sri Lanka – A Discussion Paper, Sibghatullah Ahmed and Ravi Karkara, Save the Children Sweden, 2006

This document covers Save the Children in Sri Lanka initiatives to promote children friendly and children-sensitive disaster risk reduction and facilitating children’s participation in promoting disaster risk reduction in Sri Lanka. It also looks at how disaster risk reduction work with children has led to children coping effectively in the recent conflict related displacement while ensuring that their rights were respected.

ARC Resource pack : Study material
Foundation module 4 Participation and inclusion

This module provides practical information, guidelines, inspiring case studies and participatory tools to support organisations and key adult actors to engage with children as rights holders and social actors, supporting their participation in decision-making processes, which affect them and their communities. Guidance is provided to support the development of meaningful, ethical, sustainable, and inclusive participation of children (of different ages and backgrounds) in project, programme and policy responses and service delivery during different phases of an emergency, from preparedness, early, intermediate, and post emergency responses to longer-term development.

Building genuine partnerships between adults and children (and among children themselves) is a particular focus of this module as a means of transforming power relationships and creating the space for all children to interact and intervene in different levels of decision-making structures, systems and processes that are accessible and responsive to them.

Chen, Jennifer and Guy Thompstone, Children and Young People Responding to the Tsunami, Report of the forum and fair ‘Child and Youth Participation in Tsunami Response’, UNICEF EAPRO, Bangkok, 2006.
This report presents the highlights of a workshop where 20 children from tsunami-affected countries and 80 adults shared and discussed experiences with children’s participation in emergency response. The report contains workshop session summaries on children’s roles in relief, reconstruction, rehabilitation and emergency preparedness. Email: eapro@unicef.org

Delap Emily, Fred Kasozi and Denis Onoise, Protecting Children During Emergencies in Nigeria: A toolkit for trainers, Save the Children, Kaduna, Nigeria, 2005.
This participatory training toolkit includes sections on participatory learning methods, tools and exercises, child protection in emergencies and caring for separated children.

Jabry, Amer, After the Cameras Have Gone: Children in disasters, Plan International, Woking, UK, 2005.
During disasters, the physical survival needs of children are given top priority. Other rights, such as children’s protection from abuse and harm, education, rest, privacy and the right to participate are often overlooked. The report recommends to make greater efforts to address children’s protection, participation and psychological recovery during disaster responses.

McIvor, Chris and Karen Myllenen, Children’s Feedback Committees in Zimbabwe: An experiment in humanitarian accountability, Save the Children UK, Harare, 2005.
This report describes experiences in setting up children’s committees to monitor emergency food distributions in Zimbabwe. Children’s committees identified cases of abuse and of exclusion of marginalized groups and individuals in the communities. The report discusses strategies to protect the young monitors from reprisals by setting up community feedback mechanisms and ensuring full support from community leaders.

O’Kane, Claire, Responding to Children as Social Actors in Emergency Relief Response, Save the Children Alliance, 2001.
This paper analyses the responses that children have received in complex emergencies and proposes recommendations on engaging children as social actors, using their insights and skills for positive response efforts. It proposes that humanitarian agencies emphasize resilience and participatory non-medical approaches to respond to the psychosocial needs of children.
Email: claireokane2002@yahoo.co.uk

O’Kane, Claire, ‘Child Participation in Emergencies’ in Children and Young People as Citizens: Partners for social change, Save the Children, South and Central Asia, 2003.
This section looks at children’s participation in emergencies. It includes discussions of the impact of complex emergencies on children, the various roles children can play in responding to the situation and to help in their own recovery and reintegration. It includes many

Plan International, Children and the Tsunami, Plan International Asia Regional Office, Bangkok, 2005.
This publication presents experiences with children’s participation in the response to the December 2004 tsunami. It reports that governments and aid agencies failed to effectively involve children in tsunami relief efforts. The report advocates for children’s involvement in every relief effort. This requires a fundamental shift in attitudes and approaches by governments, agencies and communities involved in relief efforts.

Save the Children Sweden, Children’s Rights to a Good Physical Environment in Emergency Situations, Save the Children Sweden, Stockholm, 2004.
This publication reviews key international agreements and practical tools from the perspective of children’s rights to a good physical environment in emergencies. It discusses policies, strategies and programme experiences of Save the Children offices and includes a section on methods for involving children.

Tolfree, David, Whose Children? Separated Children’s Protection and Participation in Emergencies, Save the Children Sweden, 2003.
This book analyses fostering, group care and other types of care arrangements for children and adolescents separated in situations of large-scale emergencies.        

UNICEF, The Participation of Children and Young People in Emergencies, UNICEF EAPRO, 2007.
A guide for relief agencies based largely on experiences in the Asian tsunami response has captured some of the most interesting and inspiring examples of children’s involvement in the tsunami disaster response and recovery phases, as collected by UNICEF and a wide array of partners and UN agencies.

UNICEF, Voices of Hope: Adolescents and the Tsunami, UNICEF, New York, 2005.
After the December 2004 tsunami, young people all over the affected region took action, helping with relief distributions, assisting with clean-up and rebuilding efforts, looking after younger children and using their creativity to let others know about the devastation. Responses from children living in other parts of the world were equally inspiring. The report compiles messages received at UNICEF’s interactive Voices of Youth website where young people from around the world expressed their shock, solidarity and offers to help.

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