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Community Based Approaches (Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS); Monitoring and Evaluation), Dakar Regional Office, Senegal (Consultancy)

As not one of the countries in the region of West and Central Africa is on track to reach their MDG sanitation goals, the regional office has led a push in WCAR over the last year to promote the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) strategy , with the aim of accelerating sanitation coverage in the region. Community led approaches to total sanitation are a key element of UNICEF’s global WASH strategy and contribute to the attainment of the health related MDGs.   This strategy has been well tested in Asia, and has enabled countries like Bangladesh to get back on track with their MDG goals in sanitation without the support of subsidies. It has also been introduced successfully in several countries in East Africa such as Ethiopia and Kenya. In West Africa, a few countries - Sierra Leone, Nigeria and Ghana - have already introduced CLTS with considerable success in the past few years.

The strategy involves invoking shame and disgust to ‘trigger’ communities into a collective decision to take action to stop open defecation and build toilets.  After a triggering session, a community is asked to name a date when it will become ‘open defecation free’ (ODF). The motivation has been found to be so great that communities build their own latrines, often within a matter of months. The identification of ‘Natural Leaders or community CLTS champions during the triggering can greatly assist this process.  Our intention is that the introduction of CLTS in West Africa will have a similarly strong impact as in Asia, giving sanitation in West Africa a boost to knock countries back on-track to reach the sanitation MDG.

The introduction of the CLTS strategy in West & Central Africa is a process that has taken off remarkably well. The WCARO WASH team intends to monitor, evaluate and document the process, to assess what worked well, what didn’t, and the progress made in increasing sanitation coverage. It will be of interest to observe the varying results in different countries, and what factors might contribute to this relative success, with the intention of modifying the strategy, if necessary, to better fit the WCAR context.  The evaluation will be a useful learning document to support the new phases of the CLTS strategy roll out in WCAR and also for the region-wide promotion of other strategies of a similar nature.

Proposed Phase 1 Evaluation
As  phase 1 of the CLTS roll-out process draws to a natural conclusion, and countries are moving into the second phase of national promotion (outlined above), it would be useful to take stock of the process. The time lag between the first regional training and national events can vary between a few weeks to 6 months, and an evaluation should thus ideally be taking place approximately one year after the first regional training – late 2009 to early 2010.

 Key Stakeholders
- UNICEF regional Office and Country Offices
- Government partners in sanitation policy development and CLTS implementation
- NGO partners in implementation
- CLTS trainers and facilitators and natural leaders (voluntary)
- Training organisations and individuals such as CREPA, IDS, Plan, Kamal Kar
- Community stakeholders throughout west & central Africa

Main Duties and Responsibilities
The purpose of this evaluation is to provide UNICEF with a flexible and rapid source of independent expertise to evaluate on:
2.1) The relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the CLTS roll-out in the region to date.
2.2) The opportunities for extending the CLTS strategy in Phase 2 as a contribution to the attainment of the health-related MDGs, in particular related to hygiene and sanitation.

Scope:  The evaluation will be targeted at all implementers of CLTS in 13 countries of the West and Central Africa region (WCAR) to further our understanding and improve our implementation of this important behavioural change approach. 

The evaluation is envisaged at 4 key levels: regional, national, facilitation and implementation levels.

a) Regional level - Objective 1:  The  relevance and effectiveness of the roll out process of CLTS is evaluated
To include, but not limited to, the following questions:
• Did the roll-out process take place according to the original planning ?
• Was the implementation efficient and effective ?
• What are the main strengths and weaknesses encountered during the implementation?
• How effective has the regional inter-agency collaboration been?
• Is it possible to assess whether this strategy is having the desired effect (or potential) of pushing countries back on track with their sanitation MDG?
• How many households in the region are now practicing safe sanitation as a result of CLTS?
• What are the recommendations on changes to the regional CLTS strategy to better fit the WCAR context?
• What are the recommendations for further action, research and support for the next national phases of CLTS promotion (phase 2)?

b) National level – Objective 2: The contribution of CLTS on national sanitation policy/strategy in the 13 countries where introduced is assessed.
To include, but not limited to, the following questions:
• What has been the contribution of CLTS in each country with regard to ownership, policy, and budgeting for sanitation?
• How do the national action plans (developed in regional workshops) compare and which approaches have achieved better results? (e.g. focus on implementation in 1 region versus blanket national roll-out).
• What is the cost of the CLTS process in different countries to date, and what are the predicted costs (per HH) to go to scale throughout the country?

c) Facilitation level – Objective 3:  The regional capacity for sustainable implementation of CLTS is evaluated.
To include, but not limited to, the following questions:
• What is the availability and quality of facilitation in the region?
• What is the institutional capacity in the region, and how successful has UNICEF’s partnership with CREPA been in increasing this?
• How does the quality of facilitation compare in the Francophone and Anglophone countries of the region?

d) Implementation level – Objective 4: The implementation of the CLTS tools in the West African context is assessed.
To include, but not limited to, the following questions:
• How well has the CLTS approach transferred from the Asian to the West African context?
• What local adaptations to the approach have been made? (eg peri-urban successes, SLTS.)
• Is the CLTS strategy sustainable?
• What level of success have the workshop-triggered communities had in reaching ODF, and to what extent has the follow-up support played a key role in this success?
• How important has the role of advocacy/the use of media/ formal ODF certification been in the success of CLTS?
• How appropriate and useful are the existing CLTS tools, and what is their level of social acceptance? Are there recommendations for further tool development?
• Have human rights and gender considerations been given adequate consideration in the implementation of the CLTS approach?

 Existing information sources
As this approach is relatively new, there is limited documentation to date. The following documents are available in the regional office:
- Phase 1 & 2 WCARO proposals
- TORs for facilitation of workshops
- Reports from national level workshops by CREPA/Kamal Kar
- Follow-up updates sent from country offices
- National Action Plans developed in the regional workshops
- Ghana CLTS review, Magala, 2009.
- Overview paper (Bevan & Thomas, 2009)
- Other national reports such as the Sierra Leone quarterly WASH reports. The IDS CLTS website is also a great resource for all materials relating to CLTS: http://www.communityledtotalsanitation.org/

4. Evaluation Process and MethodsAfter the appointment of a consultant or team, a detailed plan and a timetable of travel will be agreed upon in close consultation with the WASH team in WCARO.  It is envisaged that the evaluation will take the following steps:
• The consultant will begin with a desk study, and the development and agreement of qualitative tools and questionnaires to be used.
• A series of visits to selected countries to review specific CLTS programmes.  Selection of the countries will be made on several criteria, such as the level of advancement with CLTS, the range of facilitation provided and other influencing factors. The evaluation will be conducted using standardized procedures and tools that will be implemented in each of the targeted countries.
• Collation of the material, analysis and report writing.

The study should take a maximum period of 3 months.

Click here to view the complete Terms of Reference

Profile of the Ideal Candidate
- Educational background/degree: postgraduate degree in public health, engineering, or relevant field experience
- Minimum eight years of development or post emergency response experience with specific experience in community based approaches preferably Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS); Monitoring and Evaluation an advantage
- Familiarity with the West Africa context an advantage
- Evaluation methods and data-collection skills
- Analytical skills and frameworks, such as gender analysis
- Process management skills, such as facilitation skills
- Fluency in both English and French

The applications CV/P11, and the Candidate Self Assessment Form of interested candidates should be sent to: matoure@unicef.org, with a copy to: jbevan@unicef.org by 22 January 2010.



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