Action Research on Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education: Improving the equity and quality of education for ethnic minority children in Viet Nam
Viet Nam has made overall progress in basic education. Net enrolment rates for primary and second level are 95.5 per cent and 86.2 per cent, respectively (2009 Census). Between 1992 and 2008, primary level completion rates rose from 45.0 per cent to 89.8 per cent.
Despite major achievements in the education sector in Viet Nam, however disparities still remain and education attainment is much lower among several groups, particularly among ethnic minority groups. For ethnic minority children, low enrolment and completion and high drop-out and repetition rates remain a challenge. According to the Government’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS, 2011), the primary school completion rate among ethnic minority children is significantly lower than that of Kinh and Hoa children: 79.8 per cent and 103.1 per cent, respectively. There is also inequality between different ethnic minority groups. Figure 1 shows that the primary school net attendance rate among the Mong is as low as 69.6 per cent, while the rate among the Tay is the highest of all, 93.5 per cent, followed by Kinh of 92.6 per cent (Census, 2009).