Overview

Country Programme for 2010-2015

The Convention on the Rights of the Child

 

Country Programme for 2010-2015

© UNICEF / Pirozzi / 2009

Goals and priorities

The overarching goal of the current Country Programme is to promote progressive realization of child rights using an equity-based approach. In concrete terms, this goal will contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially targets concerning child survival, growth, development, protection and participation, with a specific focus on bridging disparities.

The strategies include strengthening national capacity to plan, implement and monitor equity-driven interventions for the fulfillment of the rights of all children and women under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW).

The Country Programme reflects the national focus on policy and systems reform aiming at a significant improvement in the quality of services in education, health and nutrition, child protection and related sectors. Over the six years of its duration it will assist the Government to enhance understanding of disparities and their causes, taking proven interventions to scale, addressing underlying causes of inequity, expanding and targeting resources for equity focused solutions to achieve the MDGs and sustain their benefits.

A three-tiered strategic approach

- At national level, to provide quality technical knowledge and skills to strengthen social policy and systems management; promote use of comprehensive, evidence-based evaluations to make social services responsive and equitable and leverage resources for children; assist the Government to take successful outcomes and interventions to scale in a sustainable manner.

- At sub national level, to reinforce partnerships with local governments to address capacity gaps in local planning, delivery and monitoring of services for children that are better tailored to each region’s needs and improve their quality.

- At community level, to empower service providers with inter personal communication skills to promote positive behavior development / change and to empower families with a better understanding of child rights and enhance demand for quality services.

Key features of the Country Programme

 - Significant increase in human and financial resources mobilized for the Country Programme since 2007. - Equity-focused, innovative approaches combined with country-specific knowledge and expertise.

Focus on achieving MDGs with equity for children

MDG 1 – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger: According to the State Statistics Committee, the level of poverty based on a measure of 2,100 kilocalories per person per day, stood at 23.60 per cent in 2007. The Government is committed to reducing this level to 14 per cent by 2015. However, greater progress is needed in rural areas, where 64 per cent of poor people live (2008 official data). Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies have been contributing to about one third of the under-five mortality rate. About 5 per cent of children are underweight and exclusive breastfeeding is 26 per cent.

MDG 2 – Achieve universal primary education: With a school attendance rate at 96 per cent, Uzbekistan is on track to reach this MDG. However, the Country Programme is focusing on narrowing the gaps underneath the national averages. Preschool attendance stands at 22 per cent nationally and 13 per cent in rural areas. In spite of the Government’s focus on quality and relevance, curricula and teaching methods need further improvement to meet global standards. 36 per cent of teachers for 1-4 grades in rural areas are fully qualified as compared to 61 per cent of teachers working in urban areas (State Statistics Committee, 2006).

MDG 3 – Promote gender equality and empower women: Gender parity in primary and secondary education was officially achieved in 2005, although the 2007-2008 National Human Development Report suggests that longer distances from lyceums and colleges raises access barriers for girls from traditional families.

MDG 4 – Reduce child mortality: To meet this MDG, Uzbekistan needs to reduce the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) to 24 deaths per 1,000 live births. According to MICS 2006, U5MR fell from 69 to 57 per 1,000 live births between 2000 and 2006. Though full immunisation coverage is above 87 per cent, its sustainability is a challenge due to funding and vaccine management issues. Another challenge is to strengthen knowledge and key household practices to support children’s survival, early development and protection.

MDG 5 – Improve maternal health: While 95 per cent of deliveries occur in public facilities, uneven quality of perinatal care (from 22 weeks of pregnancy to 1 week after birth) contributes to a high maternal mortality ratio (MMR), which stood at 28 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2006. Regional disparities exist: in the Southern regions, less than 78 per cent of pregnant women go through all the required components of ante-natal care, compared with 98 per cent in Tashkent city (MICS 2006).

MDG 6 – Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases: Reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS will be a challenge in Central Asia, including in Uzbekistan. According to the Republican AIDS Centre, the number of registered cases rose from 230 cases in 2000 to over 16,000 by 2010. With a 10 per cent increase in prevalence amongst women, more children are at risk from mother-to-child transmission. Most-at-risk adolescents do not know how to protect themselves against HIV.

MDG 7 – Ensure environmental sustainability: According to official statistics, the population with access to safe drinking water increased moderately from 80 per cent in 2000 to 82.5 per cent in 2008. However, shrinking of the Aral Sea, which has led to desertification, soil salinity and extreme weather conditions, poses a challenge. The affected population is experiencing health problems and a deterioration of livelihoods. The risk of natural disasters, especially earthquakes, undermines prospects of environmental sustainability.

MDG 8 - Develop a global partnership for development: A clear role exists for development partners in coordinating better use of available resources. The Welfare Improvement Strategy of Uzbekistan is useful in identifying areas for international development partners to make a strategic contribution, particularly in bridging regional, social and economic disparities and supporting the Government to realize its commitment to make the transition from a “strong State to a strong society” in which citizens are better aware of their rights and demand quality services.

 

 

 

 

Targets for 2015

  • The U5MR and MMR reduced from 57 to 24 deaths per 1,000 live births, and from 28 to 23 deaths per 100,000 live births, respectively; 
  • Micronutrient deficiency rates will be reduced by 20% for anaemia and by 50% for iodine deficiency disorders; 
  • Virtual elimination of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV will be achieved; 
  • The use of youth-friendly health services by most-at-risk adolescents will increase from 20 to 60% nationwide; 
  • Preschool enrolment for children 3 to 7 years old will increase from 22% to 50%, and at least 50% of schools will be child-friendly; 
  • Enrolment of children with special needs will increase by 20% in mainstream basic education, and more children at risk of dropping out will be retained; 
  • Uninterrupted school attendance for all children during cotton harvesting season; 
  • A reduction in the ratio of institutionalised children to children placed in alternative care of 25%; 
  • Child rights issues will be documented on a yearly basis and followed up.

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