UNITE FOR CHILDREN-- UNICEF

A Gender Review in Education, Turkey 2003 (2)

Education Data

A group of children draw on a paper-covered wall

A communal drawing project in Diyarbakır, Southeastern Turkey.
Photograph by Ahmet Aküzüm © UNICEF Turkey 2003

Statistics

Table 1: Early Childhood Education
Early Childhood Education Total Girls Boys Gender Gap
Percentage1 6.9% 6.7% 7.1% 0.4%
Number2 226,811 107,556 119,255 11,699

1 Children in early childhood education (ECE) including public, private and community-based programmes. Temporary statistics for the academic year 2001-2002, Ministry of National Education (MONE) Research, Planning and Coordination Committee 2003.

2 Total number of students in ECE. MONE RPC 2002.

Table 2: Primary Education
Primary Education Total Girls Boys Gender Gap
Gross Enrolment3 96.6% 93% 100% 7.8%
Net Enrolment4 89.8% 87% 92.4% 5.3%
Net Attendance5 n/a 70% 73% 3%
Out-of-school6 1,434,000 873,000 562,000 311,000
Repetition7 3.5% n/a n/a n/a
Transfer to Secondary8 83% n/a n/a n/a

3 Temporary statistics for the beginning of the academic year 2001-2002, State Institute of Statistics (SIS) 2001.

4 ibidem
Note: At the beginning of the academic year, the net enrolment rate to grades 6, 7 and 8 (the 12-14 age group) for girls was 67.3% in rural areas. The corresponding rate for boys was 82.2%. In urban areas, the rates were 79.8% and 89.8% respectively. SIS 2002.

5 Between 1990 and 2001, the net primary school attendance rate for girls was 70% and 73% for boys. The State of the World’s Children 2003, UNICEF, New York 2003.

6 MONE 2003.

7 MONE, Directorate General of Primary Education 2003.

8 Of 1,054,941 students who graduated from primary school at the end of the academic year 2000-2001, 880,832 were enrolled for secondary education in 2001-2002. MONE RPC 2002.

Note: Disaggregated figures for rural and urban net enrolment rates in primary education are not available -- nor are figures for net attendance and completion. However, according to the MONE Research, Planning and Coordination Committee, the transition rate from 5th to 6th grade in 2001 was 97%. The number of students enrolled in 1st grade in 1995-1996 was 1,345,391 and the number of those who enrolled in 8th grade in 2002-2003 was 1,114,011. MONE, 2003.

Table 3: Secondary Education
Secondary Education Total Girls Boys Gender Gap
Gross Enrolment9 66% 57.2% 74.3% 17.1%
Out-of-school10 1,276,097 782,791 493,306 289,485
‘Second Chance’11 562,056 187,333 374,723 187,390
Completion12 65% n/a n/a n/a
Drop-out13 8% 6% 11% 5%
Transfer to Tertiary14 39.8% 11.6% 10.6% 1%

9 Disaggregated figures for rural and urban gross enrolment rates in secondary education are not available -- however, students from rural areas account for 6% of the gross enrolment rate with students from urban centres making up the majority of 94%. Figures for the academic year 2002-2003, MONE RPC 2003.

10 ibidem.

11 ibidem.

12 MONE RPC, p125, 2001

13 MONE Under-secretariat 2002.

14 Öğrenci Seçme ve Yerleştime Sınavı Sonuçları, (Student Selection and Placement Examination Results ÖSYM Publications, Ankara 2002. The transition rate to tertiary level education is higher than the tertiary enrolment rate (see Table 4). This may be due to the fact that some students who have qualified to enter a university prefer not to enroll and try again the following year.

Note: Figures for rates of repetition in secondary education are not available.

Table 4: Other Rates in Education
Other Rates in Education Total Girls Boys Gender Gap
Gross Enrolment Tertiary15 21.3% 18.7% 24.3% 8.3%
15+ Literacy16 83.6% 75.4% 91.4% 16%
Adult Literacy17 86.5% 78.5% 94.4% 15.9%
Adult Literacy (Rural)18 80% 69.2% 91% 21.8%
Adult Literacy (Urban)19 89.9% 83.4% 96.1% 12.7%

15 Temporary data, SIS 2001. The transition rate (see Table 3) indicates those who are eligible to enter a university whereas the enrolment rate shows only those who actually take up a place.

16 2000 Population Census, SIS 2003.

17 2000 Population Census, Social and Economic Characteristics of Population, Turkey, Publication Number 2759, p90, SIS 2003.

18 ibidem p155.

19 ibidem pp153-154.

Table 5: Impact of HIV/AIDS
Impact of HIV/AIDS Total Female Male Gender Gap
Children living with HIV/AIDS20 30 15 15 0
Infection Rate21 0.0022 0.0007 0.0015 0.008
Infected Population22 1,515 473 1,042 569

20 Statistics, Ministry of Health (MOH) 2003.

21 ibidem.

22 ibidem.

Note: The number of children under fifteen years of age who have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS is not known in Turkey.

Continue to the third part of A Gender Review in Education, Turkey 2003, National, Political and Economic Context.

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