• Overviews / general literature on diversion & alternatives
• Implementation guidelines
• Overviews of research / meta-analyses
• Training and 'how to' manuals
• Other training resources
Overviews / general literature on diversion & alternatives
'An Outside Chance: Street Children and Juvenile Justice – an International Perspective', Marie Wernham, Consortium for Street Children, 2004
Part 1 [Pdf 576kb]
Part 2 [Pdf 508kb]
Part 3 [Pdf 347kb]
Provides a comprehensive overview of the causes and consequences of street children’s involvement in criminal justice systems in a wide range of countries but is relevant for all children in conflict with the law. In addition to discussion on diversion and alternatives, it includes: descriptions - in the children’s own words - of the treatment they receive at different stages; a framework of overarching concepts and recommended approaches to reform; an introduction to international human rights standards; practical examples of projects and approaches from around the world; specific recommendations, including from children themselves, targeted at different actors in the system.
'Handbook of basic principles and promising practices on Alternatives to Imprisonment', UNODC, 2007 [PDF 764kb]
Very useful for reference to alternatives at specific stages, exploring possibilities and guidelines, even though it applies mostly to adults. Includes sections on infrastructure requirements, who should act, choosing alternatives, knowledge base, political initiative, legislative reform, infrastructure and resources, net-widening, monitoring, promotion of alternatives, the media and justice and equality
UNODC 'Handbook on Restorative Justice Programmes', 2006 [Pdf 4.03Mb]
Practical publication not specific to children (although it includes a short section on this), but the guidance is nonetheless fully applicable. Includes sections on: types of programmes; principles and safeguards; implementing and operating programmes; the dynamics of interventions; monitoring and evaluation; useful web-based resources; and debates around restorative justice. Also includes a copy of the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Restorative Justice Programmes in Criminal Matters.
Tajikistan: 'Guide to the Establishment and Implementation of the Juvenile Justice Alternatives Project', Children's Legal Centre and UNICEF [Word 605kb]
Very useful and easy to read documentation of the Tajikistan JJAP which has been replicated in other countries. Contains, amongst other things, sample forms, structure diagrams and roles and responsibilities for different actors.
The Philippines: 'Guidelines for a Community-Based Diversion and Prevention Programme for Children in Conflict with the Law', FREELAVA and Save the Children UK, 2005 [Pdf 1.92Mb]
Very useful, clear and detailed guidelines (48 pages) on how to implement community-based programmes, with an emphasis on a restorative justice approach. Includes information on the structure and personnel involved and a detailed description of the programme process.
The Philippines: 'Back on Track: Making Community-Based Diversion Work for Children in Conflict with the Law - A Documentation of FREELAVA’s Experience in Cebu City, Philippines', Save the Children UK, 2005 [Pdf 2.72Mb]
Documents a preliminary study of the FREELAVA project (200 pages). Includes: city context and profile of children involved; overview of implementing NGO; outline of the programme (including useful flowchart p.69); preliminary assessment of the programme; 5 detailed case studies of children; 'what makes community-based diversion work' (p.162); recommendations.
'Attendance Order Implementation Rules', Government of Montenegro, Ministry of Justice & UNICEF, May 2007 [Pdf 190kb]
Straightforward official implementation rules: includes sections on: 'Settlement with the victim' (mediation); 'Regular attendance of school or committment to employment'; 'Work without remuneration for humanitarian organizations or social, local community or environment protection work'; 'Submission to examination and alcohol and substance abuse treatment'; 'Individual or group treatment in a health-care institution or a counsel centre'.
Guidelines for establishing diversion programmes in Nigeria, Jennifer Pothier for UNICEF Nigeria 2004 [Word 128kb]
Guidelines (collated from manuals and project examples from around the world) to help guide the planning of diversion programmes at national and local levels.
USA - 'Establishing Juvenile Diversion in Your Community', Stephen T. Russell, Susan Wood & Sara Domeier, Cooperative Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, 1998 [Pdf 85kb]
Brief guide describing the issues communities need to consider in the development of a juvenile diversion programme. [Please note: this document is old and the situation on the ground may have changed].
Overviews of research / meta-analyses
'Tough is not Enough: Getting Smart about Youth Crime - A review of research on what works to reduce offending by young people', Kaye L McLaren, New Zealand Ministry of Youth Affairs, 2000 [PDF 470kb]
Excellent meta-analysis of global research on children in conflict with the law to establish 'what works' and 'what doesn't work'. [Note this document has been used as a key resource for the toolkit].
DRAFT: ‘Deconstructing the Pipeline: Using Efficacy and Effectiveness Data and Cost-Benefit Analyses to Reduce Minority Youth Incarceration’, David Osher et al., American Institutes for Research and Arizona State University, 2003 [Word 139kb]
Academic meta-analyis of US research in relation to recidivism and cost effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, diversion and other programmes for children in conflict wtih the law. Provides good project summaries and hard data on recidivism and cost. Narrative focus on over-representation of ethnic minorities in the system. [Please note that this is a draft paper only]. [Note this document has been used as a key resource for the toolkit]
Training and 'how to' manuals
'Police Training on Child Rights & Child Protection: Lessons Learned and Manual', Marie Wernham, with Savina Geerinckx and Elanor Jackson, 2005 [Pdf 3.9Mb]
This document is in two parts - lessons learned and sample / model manual. Although it is aimed at the police, the lessons learned and many of the training exercises are relevant for a wide range of stakeholders. The 'lessons learned' part includes sections on: training as part of a broader strategy; components of an overall strategy; how to conduct a situation analysis; different approaches to training; planning training (capacity, funding, identifying participants and trainers, logistics, training needs assessment, planning sessions, monitoring and evaluation, methodology and direct contact with children); obstacles and lessons learned in general.
UNICEF / PRI Juvenile Justice Training Manual 2006:
Comprehensive overview of information on children in conflict with the law. The manual consists of straightforward training 'modules' with accompanying powerpoint slides, a series of annexes and additional materials regarding trainng and workshops in general.
Introduction [Pdf 255kb]
Module 1 [Pdf 464kb]
Module 2 [Pdf 600kb]
Module 3 [Pdf 606kb]
Module 4 [Pdf 506kb]
Module 5 [Pdf 658kb]
Module 6 [Pdf 412kb]
Module 7 [Pdf 1.1Mb]
Module 8 [Pdf 603kb]
Slides 1 [Ppt 57kb]
Slides 2a [Ppt 43kb]
Slides 2b [Ppt 58kb]
Slides 3 [Ppt 34kb]
Slides 4 [Ppt 52kb]
Slides 5 [Ppt 49kb]
Slides 6 [Ppt 31kb]
Slides 7 [Ppt 47kb]
Slides 8 [Ppt 54kb]
Annex A [Pdf 103kb]
Annex B [Pdf 81kb]
Annex C [Pdf 144kb]
Annex D [Pdf 75kb]
Annex E [Word 25kb]
Effective presentations [Pdf 627kb]
Games and exercises [Pdf 1.34Mb]
How to organise workshops [Pdf 577kb]
Visualisation in Participatory Programmes [Pdf 3.2Mb]
Publicaiton of the Interagency Panel on Juvenile Justice [Pdf 635kb]
Training quiz [Pdf 112kb]
Training tips [Pdf 206kb]
'Manual for the Measurement of Juvenile Justice Indicators', UNODC / UNICEF, April 2006
Essential tool regarding indicators for children in conflict with the law. Downloadable in 11 parts:
1. Front cover [Pdf 119kb]
2. Manual [Pdf 807kb]
3. Appendix 1 [Pdf 18kb]
4. Appendix 2 [Pdf 68kb]
5. Appendix 3 [Pdf 115kb]
6. Appendix 4 [Pdf 78kb]
7. Appendix 5a [Pdf 24kb]
8. Appendix 5b [Excel 114kb]
9. Appendix 5c [Excel 182kb]
10. Appendix 6 [Pdf 38kb]
11. Back cover [Pdf 119kb]
UNODC (Nigeria) 'Training Manual on Alternative Dispute Resolution and Restorative Justice', October 2007 [Pdf 292kb]
Contains sections on: Overview and context for ADR; ADR under Nigerian law; Approaches to negotiation - links between negotiation and mediation; Introduction to mediation; Mediator skills; Advanced mediation skills; Why restorative justice?; Overview of the concepts and models; Designing an ADR and RJ system in Nigeria; Evaluating the judiciary for ADR and RJ. Material is presented as straightforward information rather than as a series of training exercises. Not specific to children.
'Communication Skills for Social Workers - A trainers' manual', Kevin Barnes-Ceeney & Amanda Naylor, VSO & UNICEF Kazakhstan [no date] [Word 1.53Mb]
Series of training exercises to help develop communication skills. Not specific to diversion and alternatives, but included here for general interest.
Other training resources
'Juvenile Justice Power Walk' (source unknown - provided by UNICEF Papua New Guinea) [Word 52kb]
30-minute training exercise to demonstrate to participants some differences in developmental levels and understanding between children and adults in conflict with the law.
‘Justice for Children: Diversion and Alternative Measures - Workshop Report, January 2009’, Child Protection Section, UNICEF Afghanistan [Pdf 541kb]
Report from workshop involving stakeholders from the 8 provinces involved in the diversion and alternatives pilot project (social workers, police & prosecutors). Includes: summary of key learning points, way forward in 2009, indicators to measure progress, social inquiry report format and flowchart, country background and informaiton on the Juvenile Code of Afghanistan, and case studies used for discussions. [Annex 3 includes case studies that can be adapted for training]