Statistics and Monitoring

Millennium Development Goals (MDG) monitoring


In September 2000, 189 countries signed the United Nations Millennium Declaration [A/RES/55/2], committing themselves to eradicating extreme poverty in all its forms by 2015. To help track progress toward these commitments, a set of time-bound and quantified goals and targets, called the Millennium Development Goals, were developed for combating poverty in its many dimensions - including reducing income poverty, hunger, disease, environmental degradation and gender discrimination.

About the Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) include 8 goals, 21 targets and 60 indicators for measuring progress between 1990 and 2015, when the goals are expected to be met. The table below lists the goals, targets and indicators included in the MDGs.

Key documents and links related to the MDGs may be found at the UN Statistics Division - Millennium Development Goals Indicators website. Those include access to the most recent version of MDGInfo, a database system designed for the compilation and presentation of development indicators for the global monitoring of progress achieved towards the MDGs since 1990.

Please note that the current official MDG framework supersedes the previous version, which had been effective since 2003.

Goals and Targets Indicators for Monitoring Progress
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Target 1.A Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day 1.1 Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per daya
1.2 Poverty gap ratio
1.3 Share of poorest quintile in national consumption
Target 1.B Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people 1.4 Growth rate of GDP per person employed
1.5 Employment-to-population ratio
1.6 Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day
1.7 Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment
Target 1.C Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger 1.8 Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age
1.9 Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Target 2.A Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling 2.1 Net enrolment ratio in primary education
2.2 Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach last grade of primary
2.3 Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds, women and men
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Target 3.A Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015 3.1 Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education
3.2 Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector
3.3 Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Target 4.A Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate 4.1 Under-five mortality rate
4.2 Infant mortality rate
4.3 Proportion of 1-year old children immunized against measles
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Target 5.A Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio 5.1 Maternal mortality ratio
5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel
Target 5.B Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate
5.4 Adolescent birth rate
5.5 Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits)
5.6 Unmet need for family planning
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Target 6.A Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS 6.1 HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years
6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex
6.3 Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS

6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans aged 10-14 years
Target 6.B Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it 6.5 Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs
Target 6.C Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 6.6 Incidence and death rates associated with malaria
6.7 Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bednets

6.8 Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti-malarial drugs
6.9 Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
6.10 Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Target 7.A Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources 7.1 Proportion of land area covered by forest
7.2 CO2 emissions, total, per capita and per $1 GDP (PPP)
7.3 Consumption of ozone-depleting substances
7.4 Proportion of fish stocks within safe biological limits
7.5 Proportion of total water resources used
Target 7.B Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss 7.6 Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected
7.7 Proportion of species threatened with extinction
Target 7.C Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation 7.8 Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source
7.9 Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility
Target 7.D By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers 7.10 Proportion of urban population living in slumsb
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
Target 8.A Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction - both nationally and internationally Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.

Official development assistance
8.1 Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors' gross national income
8.2 Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)
8.3 Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
8.4 ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes
8.5 ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes

Market access
8.6 Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and least developed countries, admitted free of duty
8.7 Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries
8.8 Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product
8.9 Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity

Debt sustainability
8.10 Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)
8.11 Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives
8.12 Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
Target 8.B Address the special needs of the least developed countries
Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries' exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction
Target 8.C Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)
Target 8.D Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
Target 8.E In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries 8.13 Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
Target 8.F

In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications


8.14 Telephone lines per 100 population
8.15 Cellular subscribers per 100 population
8.16 Internet users per 100 population

Effective 15 January 2008

Bolded text refers to indicators for which UNICEF is a lead agency in MDG monitoring.
a For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used, where available.
b The actual proportion of people living in slums is measured by a proxy, represented by the urban population living in households with at least one of the four characteristics: (a) lack of access to improved water supply; (b) lack of access to improved sanitation; (c) overcrowding (3 or more persons per room); and (d) dwellings made of non-durable material.

The Millennium Development Goals and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries, including 147 heads of State and Government, in September 2000 and from further agreement by member states at the 2005 World Summit (Resolution adopted by the General Assembly - A/RES/60/1. The goals and targets are interrelated and should be seen as a whole. They represent a partnership between the developed countries and the developing countries "to create an environment - at the national and global levels alike - which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty".




Visit to access all of UNICEF’s statistical information, including data used in UNICEF’s flagship publications, The State of the World’s Children, and reporting on Progress for Children toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

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