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References

1 Cited in United Nations Children's Fund, The State of the World's Children 1989, UNICEF, New York, 1988, p. 87, and UNICEF, 1995.

2 United Nations Children's Fund and World Health Organization, 1994.

3 Sivard, Ruth Leger, World Military and Social Expenditures 1993, World Priorities Inc., Washington, D.C., 1993, p. 20.

4 UNICEF has compiled the estimates from a diversity of sources.

5 Ahlstrum, Christer, Casualties of Conflict: Report for the world campaign for the protection of victims of war, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala, 1991, pp. 8, 19.

6 United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, States of Disarray: The social effects of globalization, UNRISD, 1995, p. 112.

7 This comment was broadcast over Radio Mille Collines in Rwanda. As many as 300,000 children were killed in the massacres in that country in 1994.

8 Ressler, Everett M., J. M. Tortorici and A. Marcelino, Children in War: A guide to the provision of services, UNICEF, New York, 1993, p. 117.

9 United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, States of Disarray: The social effects of globalization, op. cit., p. 113, box 7.1.

10 Stanley, Alessandra, 'Child Warriors', Time, 18 June 1990.

11 United Nations Children's Fund, Hadlok: Filipino children caught in the crossfire, UNICEF, Manila, undated, p. 15.

12 Dodge, Cole P., 'Child soldiers of Uganda and Mozambique', Reaching Children in War: Sudan, Uganda and Mozambique, edited by C. P. Dodge and M. Raundalen, Sigma Forlag, Uppsala, 1991, p. 54.

13 Macpherson, Martin, ed., Child Soldiers: The recruitment of children into armed forces and their participation in hostilities, Quaker Peace and Service Report, UK, updated September 1992, p. 11.

14 Ibid., p. 17.

15 United Nations Children's Fund, 'Angola: Alliance for life'. Document prepared for The State of the World's Children 1996. Luanda, July 1995, p. 4.

16 'Sierra Leone: Out of the bush', The Economist, 6 May 1995, pp. 41-42.

17 Macpherson, op. cit., p. 30.

18 Hammarberg, Thomas, presentation to the Regional Consultation on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children in the Arab Region, in Cairo, 1995.

19 United Nations Children's Fund/United Nations Development Fund for Women, 'Women and Armed Conflict', in the kit on the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, UNICEF/UNIFEM, New York, 1995, p. 1.

20 El Bushra, Judy and E. Piza-Lopez, 'Gender, War and Food', in War and Hunger: Rethinking international responses to complex emergencies, edited by J. Macrae and A. Zwi, Zed Books, UK, 1994, p. 184.

21 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Refugees at a Glance: A monthly digest of UNHCR activities, UNHCR, July 1995.

22 United Nations, Update on the Nutrition Situation: A report compiled from information available to the ACC/SCN, 1994, Geneva, November 1994, p. 58.

23 Ressler, op. cit., p. 142.

24 United Nations Children's Fund, 'Overview of Recent UNICEF Activities', Emergency Fund-raising Kit, update No. 4, October 1994.

25 United Nations Children's Fund, 'Angola: Alliance for life', op. cit., p. 3.

26 Zutt, Johannes, Children of War: Wandering alone in southern Sudan, UNICEF, New York, 1994, p. 1.

27 Boothby, Neil, 'Working in the War Zone: A look at psychological theory and practice from the field', Mind and Human Interaction, Vol. 2, No. 2, The Center for the Study of Mind and Human Interaction, October 1990, p. 34.

28 Ressler, op. cit., p. 145.

29 Ressler, op. cit., p. 97.

30 Green, Reginald Herbold, 'The Course of the Four Horsemen: The costs of war and its aftermath in sub-Saharan Africa: An overview', War and Hunger, edited by J. Macrae and A. Zwi, Zed Books, UK, 1994, p. 38.

31 Macrae, Joanna and A. Zwi, 'Famine, Complex Emergencies and International Policy in Africa: An overview', War and Hunger, edited by J. Macrae and A. Zwi, Zed Books, UK, 1994, p. 14.

32 Ibid., p. 19.

33 El Zein, Ali et al, Situation Analysis and Surveys on Child Health in Lebanon, UNICEF, Beirut, 1993, p. 18.

34 United Nations Children's Fund, 'Water, hygiene and sanitation', Emergency Operations in former Yugoslavia kit. UNICEF.

35 Dodge, Cole P., 'National and Societal Implications of War on Children', Reaching Children in War: Sudan, Uganda and Mozambique, op. cit., p. 11.

36 United Nations Children's Fund, Children on the Front Line: The impact of apartheid, destabilization and warfare on children in southern and South Africa, UNICEF, New York, 1989 update, p. 25.

37 The New York Times, 'UN Chief Chides Security Council on Military Missions', reported by Barbara Crossette, 6 January 1995.

38 United Nations Children's Fund, Iraq Emergency Country Profile, UNICEF, 1995.

39 United Nations Children's Fund, 'Psychosocial programme', Emergency Operations in former Yugoslavia kit, UNICEF; reference to data collected in Sarajevo in June and July 1993.

40 United Nations Children's Fund, 'Angola: Alliance for life', op. cit., pp. 3-4.

41 United Nations, The Sixth Periodic Report on the Situation of Human Rights in the Territory of former Yugoslavia, submitted by Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, E/CN.4/1994/110, UN Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, 21 February 1994, p. 34.

42 Ressler, op. cit., p. 174.

43 United Nations, The Sixth Periodic Report on the Situation of Human Rights in the Territory of former Yugoslavia, op. cit., p. 37.

44 United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 1994, UNDP, New York, 1994, p. 47, box 3.1.

45 Ibid., p. 59.

46 Sivard, op. cit., p. 42.

47 United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 1994, op. cit., pp. 50, 51.

48 Congressional Research Service, CRS Report for Congress, Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations, 1987-1994, Washington, D.C., August 1995, p. 9.

49 Louise, Christopher, The Social Impacts of Light Weapons Availability and Proliferation, discussion paper prepared for UNRISD, International Alert, March 1995, p. 6.

50 United Nations, Assistance in mine clearance: Report of the Secretary-General, document A/49/357, United Nations, 6 September 1994, p. 7.

51 United Nations Children's Fund, Anti-personnel land-mines: A scourge on children, UNICEF, New York, 1994, p. 6.

52 Human Rights Watch/Africa, formerly Africa Watch, Land-mines in Mozambique, USA, March 1994.

53 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, statement by Sadako Ogata, High Commissioner, to the International Meeting on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 4 July 1995.

54 Guillermoprieto, Alma, 'The Shadow War', The New York Review of Books, 2 March 1995, p. 34.

55 Walker, Robert S., 'The Information Opportunity', National Review, 31 July 1995, p. 32.

56 Benthall, Jonathan, Disasters, relief and the media, I.B. Tauris, 1993, p. 102.

57 Hansen, Peter, 'Confronting Conflict', address delivered at a seminar, Wilton Park, Sussex, UK, 7 April 1995.

58 United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 1994, op. cit., p. 44.

59 Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, 'At 50, Does the UN Resemble the League of Nations?' New Perspectives Quarterly, Summer 1995, Vol. 12, No. 3, p. 37.

60 Vittachi, Varindra Tarzie, Between the Guns: Children as a zone of peace, Hodder and Stoughton, London, 1993, p. 9.

61 Black, Maggie, Children First: The story of UNICEF past and present, UNICEF/Oxford University Press, to be published in 1996.

62 United Nations Children's Fund, Report of the Executive Director, Overview of actions for children in 1987, E/ICEF/1988/2 (Part II), 23 February 1988, p. 4; and Report of the Executive Director, E/ICEF/1995/14 (Part II), 20 April 1995, p. 54.

63 United Nations Children's Fund, Hadlok: Filipino children caught in the crossfire, op. cit., p. 23.

64 United Nations, The Sixth Periodic Report on the Situation of Human Rights in the Territory of former Yugoslavia, op. cit., p. 36.


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