The State of the World's Children 2004

Education and HIV/AIDS

Barnet, E., K. de Koning, and V. Francis, ‘Health and HIV/AIDS Education in Primary and Secondary Schools in Africa and Asia’, Education Research no. 14, Overseas Development Administration, London, 1995.
This book explores the current policies and practices for health and AIDS education in primary and secondary schools in Africa and Asia, provides a health and educational context for each region, emphasizes the priority attached to HIV/AIDS, presents curriculum content, teaching methods, teacher preparation, and the concerns of young people about the pandemic.
[External Web page]

Carr-Hill, Roy and J.K. Kataboro and A. Katahoire, ‘HIV/AIDS and Education’, Education and International Development, Institute of Education, University of Dar-es-Salaam, 2000.
This paper examines the devastating impact of HIV/AIDS on education systems, particularly in relation to the demand for, and supply, management and quality of education. It describes education’s role as an instrument of prevention and lays out strategies for Ministers, non-governmental and community-based organizations to mitigate the effects of the pandemic. Through case studies from seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa, successful educational interventions are explored. The paper also includes statistics.
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Coombe, Carol and M. Kelly, ‘Education as a Vehicle for Combating HIV/AIDS’, UNESCO Prospects vol. 31, no. 3, 2001, pp. 435-45.
This essay looks at the response to and the mitigation of HIV/AIDS through curriculum and examines the needs of vulnerable learners, teacher loss and community involvement. It proposes that schools cannot effectively combat the pandemic until education systems ensure their own stability.
[External Web page]

Gillespie, Amaya, et al., ‘Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: A FRESH start to enhancing HIV/AIDS prevention’.
This article outlines a multisectoral response to HIV/AIDS as encompassed in a joint project among UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO and World Bank – the Focus Resources on Effective School Health programme. It recommends a framework of cost-effective strategies: safe water and sanitation, health-related school policies, skills-based health education, school-based health and nutrition services. This detailed description is provided as a model for school-based interventions for better health and HIV/AIDS prevention.
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Gregson, S., H. Waddell, and S. Chandiwana, ‘School Education and HIV-1 Control in Sub-Saharan Africa: From discord to harmony?’, Journal of International Development, vol. 13, 2001, pp. 467-85.
The authors contend that developed countries and sub-populations in sub-Saharan Africa have a higher prevalence of HIV, contradicting the theory of HIV as a disease of poverty and ignorance. The study considers evidence and possible reasons for this phenomenon by focusing on the relationship between education and the spread of HIV at the macro and micro levels. The researchers conclude that more educated populations are initially more vulnerable to HIV but are better equipped to mount effective responses.
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Hargreaves, James R. and Judith R. Glynn, ‘Educational Attainment and HIV Infection in Developing Countries: A systematic review’, Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 7, no. 6, 2002, p. 489-498.
This article presents a systematic review of the HIV/AIDS literature and an assessment of the relationship between educational status and HIV infection rates in developing countries. It finds that higher educational attainment is associated with a greater risk of HIV infection in Africa, but that the paradigm is contradicted when the pattern of new HIV infections in Thailand are studied, where education helps prevent the infection.
[External Web page]

Harris, Abigail and Jane G. Schubert, ‘Defining “Quality” in the Midst of HIV/AIDS: Ripple Effects in the Classroom. IEQ Project.’ American Institutes for Research, 2001.
This publication suggests ways to narrow the gap between the quantity of children accessing school and the quality of learning. It presents findings from two surveys (February 1999 and October 2000) regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on education in Malawi for both teachers and students and examines the effects of parental or extended family death on student attendance and learning.
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Hepburn, Amy E., ‘Primary Education in Eastern and Southern Africa: Increasing access for orphans and vulnerable children in AIDS-affected areas’, Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy, Duke University, 2001.
This is an analysis of national and community initiatives to increase primary education access for children orphaned or made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS in the eastern and southern Africa regions. It includes lessons learned from successful enrolment interventions.
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Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and World Health Organization, 'AIDS Epidemic Update', UNAIDS/WHO, Geneva, December 2002.
This is a global overview of the HIV/AIDS pandemic including its scale in each region. Attention is given to the division between high-income countries and the developing world, the relationship between HIV/AIDS and humanitarian crises, including southern Africa’s food crisis and HIV/AIDS in areas of armed conflict. It includes global 2002 estimates of adults and children living with HIV, new infections, and adult and child deaths due to AIDS.
[External Web page]

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 'Education and Communication’, UNAIDS/UNESCO, Paris, 2001.
This publication raises public awareness about AIDS in the community and examines myths about the disease. It includes group activities and effective messages to be used in public health education campaigns.

Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS & Education: A strategic approach, UNAIDS, Geneva, 2002.
This document presents priorities for a scaled-up response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic by schools and education systems, calling for urgent action to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS. It suggests such strategies as implementing and monitoring the National Education For All Plans of Action, ensuring cross-sectoral and inter-agency collaboration, supporting teachers, preparing high-quality learning materials on HIV/AIDS, promoting life skills and peer education, and promoting practices that favour gender equity and school attendance.
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Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 'Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic', UNAIDS, Geneva, June 2000.
This comprehensive report on the HIV/AIDS pandemic includes global and regional estimates of HIV infection rates and deaths due to AIDS and provides an overview of how HIV spreads in different parts of the world, the demographic, social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS, factors that make people vulnerable to HIV infection, prevention, counselling and testing strategies, care and support methods, and common features of effective national responses.

Kelly, M. J., 'The Encounter between HIV/AIDS and Education', UNESCO
Using Zambia as a case study, the report examines the effect of HIV/AIDS on education and the potential of education to mitigate the spread of the disease in Eastern and Southern Africa. It finds that education has a key role in establishing conditions that lower the prevalence of HIV infection, such as poverty reduction, personal empowerment and gender equity.
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Tallis, Vicci, 'Gender and HIV/AIDS: Overview Report', Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK, September 2002.
This report details a rights-based approach to the HIV/AIDS crisis and explores gender-sensitive approaches to combat stereotypes and allow for gender issues to be mainstreamed into multisectoral responses.
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United Nations Children’s Fund and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 'Children Orphaned by AIDS: Front-line responses from Eastern and Southern Africa', New York and Washington, D.C., 1999.
This is an examination of the impact of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa with a special emphasis on children who have been orphaned by the disease. It assesses the scale of the problem and recommends strategic global action.
[External Web page]

United Nations Children’s Fund, 'Girls, HIV/AIDS, and Education'.
This website identifies groups most at risk of HIV infection, focusing on gender and regional differentials, and how that effects education. It recommends responses such as ensuring girls' access to free, compulsory primary education, providing safe water and adequate sanitation, promoting skills-based HIV/AIDS education, encouraging schools to provide vocational education, fighting violence and sexual abuse, and reducing discrimination against girls in the classroom.
[Web page]

United Nations Development Programme, ‘Gender focused responses to HIV/AIDS’, 2003.
This is an analysis of gender-focused responses to HIV/AIDS with an emphasis on the specific needs of women in Swaziland who are infected by the virus. It advocates for the promotion of shared responsibilities for prevention and care, and addresses power relations between women and men.

United States Agency for International Development, Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development, 'Africa Bureau Brief', no. 2, Washington, D.C., 2002.
This booklet assesses the impact of HIV/AIDS on education systems in Africa and includes an overview of the United States Agency for International Development’s strategies. It provides appendices of activities currently supported by the agency’s Africa missions and the agency’s Bureau for Africa’s Education Team as well as the indicators used to monitor progress in common activities.
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United States Agency for International Development, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, and United Nations Children’s Fund, 'Children on the Brink 2002: A joint report on orphan estimates and program strategies', TvT Associates/The Synergy Project
This publication reports on children orphaned by HIV/AIDS and provides statistics from 88 countries, an analysis of trends found in those statistics, and strategies and principles for helping children orphaned by the disease.
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Vandemoortele, J. and E. Delamonica, ‘The “Education Vaccine” against HIV/AIDS’, 'Current Issues in Comparative Education', vol. 3, no. 1, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1 December 2000.
This article establishes a correlation between HIV infection and education levels. It states that the social profile of the AIDS epidemic is changing and suggests that the disease is discriminating against the illiterate and the poor. It underscores the urgency for achieving universal primary education and equipping the poor with basic capabilities to protect themselves from HIV infection.
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World Bank, ‘Education and HIV/AIDS: A window of hope’, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2002.
This is an overview of the HIV/AIDS pandemic – its toll in the developing world, the impact of AIDS on the education sector and the role of the Education For All movement in combating the disease.  It includes promising developments in country responses and a discussion of a strategy for action – defined objectives, targeted outcomes, expanded knowledge base, a stocktaking process that identifies appropriate actions, and adequate resources for financing. It identifies the World Bank's role in addressing the crisis.
[External Web page]

World Health Organization, ‘Integrating Gender into HIV/AIDS Programmes’, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003.
This publication examines gender’s role in the HIV/AIDS pandemic and challenges leaders and communities to integrate gender considerations into HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. It gives examples of programmes that have successfully integrated gender-specific initiatives and finds that the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS programmes and policies is greatly enhanced when gender differences are acknowledged, gender-specific concerns and needs of both women and men are addressed, and gender inequalities are reduced.
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