Education, armed conflict and emergencies
Bensalah, Kacem, ed., 'Guidelines for Education in Situations of Emergency and Crisis: EFA strategic planning', UNESCO, Paris, 2003.
This paper provides guidelines for achieving Education For All in situations of emergency, crisis and reconstruction. It examines gender issues, curriculum policies, and resource allocation and development, arguing that education in emergencies must be fully integrated into all regional and national Education For All plans. Its underlying premise is that education during times of emergency not only paves the way for rehabilitation and reconstruction of education systems but also is a means of building stability and sustained peace.
El-Bushra, Judy, Asha El-Karib and Angela Hadjipateras, 'Gender-sensitive Programme Design and Planning in Conflict-affected Situations', Research Report, Agency for Co-operation and Research in Development, January 2002.
This report documents a 2000–2001 project in sub-Saharan Africa devised to improve the development community’s understanding of the gender dimension of conflict. It investigated whether gender relations change in time of conflict and how conflict itself can be fuelled by aspects of gender identity. The report summarizes information gleaned from workshops, case studies, oral testimonies, focus group discussions and other participatory rapid assessment techniques. Full reports on Mali, Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan (external web page)
Hayward, Ruth Finney, 'Breaking the Earthenware Jar: Lessons from South Asia to end violence against women and girls', UNICEF, United Nations Publications, New York, 2000.
This book documents the incidences of gender-based violence in South Asia and the efforts of activists to combat the problem. Through first-person accounts of some 180 women and men, it dissects the reasons for this pandemic of selective female foeticide, child neglect and abuse, beatings during pregnancy, ‘honour killings’ and other forms of violence against women and girls. It also offers hope and solutions. It includes several chapters on the role of education in promoting equality and gender peace.
Human Rights Watch, 'Scared at School: Sexual violence against girls in South African schools', Human Rights Watch, New York, 2001.
This report exposes the failure of officials to respond to the prevalent sexual violence and harassment of girls in South African schools. It contends that this gender-based violence significantly impedes girls’ equal access to education. It analyzes background issues including educational history, apartheid and attitudes towards violence against women, evaluates the scale of the problem, and critiques the responses by schools, governments, and the criminal justice system to gender-based school violence. It makes recommendations for preventing future abuse and supporting victims.
[External Web page]
Machel, Graça, 'Impact of Armed Conflict on Children: A review of progress since the 1996 United Nations report on the impact of armed conflict on children', UNICEF, United Nations Publications, New York, 2003.
With examples from around the globe, this report underscores armed conflict’s devastating consequences for children’s lives and spirits. It details the horrors experienced by child soldiers, refugees, and children unaccompanied, in-flight or internally displaced. It explores gender-based violence, including rape and sexual slavery, and how women and girls experience conflict differently than men. Not only an account of children’s victimization, this report highlights ways to protect children and to promote their psychosocial recovery and reintegration.
McKay, Susan and Dyan Mazurana, 'Girls in Militaries, Paramilitaries, and Armed Opposition Groups', International Conference on War-Affected Children, Government of Canada, Winnipeg, Canada, 2000.
This paper asks, ‘Where are the girls?’ and finds them on the frontlines. The authors confirmed 39 countries with girl combatants in 1999-2000 and determined that girls made up as much as 30 per cent of child soldiers. The research delineated 14 entryways for girls into armed groups including as volunteers, payment of ‘taxes’ by parents, children of soldiers and abduction. Topics also included marginalization of girls in peace processes, health problems confronting girl soldiers and post-conflict challenges including education.
[External Web page]
Nicolai, Susan and Carl Triplehorn, ‘The Role of Education in Protecting Children in Conflict’, Humanitarian Practice Network Paper 42, March 2003.
Rebutting the position that no one dies from not going to school, this paper argues that providing education during times of conflict is linked to other humanitarian needs of children. The authors, using anecdotal evidence, suggest that education is a valuable tool and plays an important role in physical and psychosocial protection. They measure the risks and opportunities associated with education in emergencies and recommend ways to enhance education’s place during times of conflict.
United Nations Children’s Fund, ‘Factsheet: Child Protection’, New York.
This factsheet presents a statistical overview of children who are victims of violence and exploitation, including those subjected to legal detention, child labour, child trafficking, prostitution, genital cutting and armed conflict. It summarizes the adverse effects of violating children’s right to protection as well as the benefits of successful protection. It identifies eight essential aspects of a protective environment, outlines UNICEF’s approach to building a protective environment, and presents examples of UNICEF’s work around the world.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 'Assessment EFA/2000 – Thematic Study: Education in situations of emergency and crisis', Paris, 2000.
This thematic study examines Education For All and its implementation during times of war and natural disaster. It looks at the uneven responses in providing education during emergencies, reviews achievements and challenges to date, analyses strategies and practices, and makes recommendations for future action. Gender-sensitive issues, including girls’ schooling and the importance of ensuring girls and women an equal right to education in emergencies, are addressed throughout.
[External Web page]
United States Fund for UNICEF, 'The Learning Tree: Education and reintegration for children affected by war in West Africa', US Fund for UNICEF, New York, 2003.
This is a brief document that summarizes the programme activities of The Learning Tree initiative in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Project goals and methods are outlined in relation to each nation’s experience of war and in the context of children’s rights and persistent gender discrimination.