The State of the World's Children 2004

Education and child labour

Akabayashi, Hideo and Psacharopoulos, George, ‘The Trade-off between Child Labour and Human Capital Formation: A Tanzanian case study’, in 'Journal of Development Studies', vol. 35, no. 5, 1999, pp. 120-140.
Using time-log data from a 1993 survey in the United Republic of Tanzania, the research investigates the relationship between child work and human capital development. It found that factors that increase children’s working hours also decrease their hours of study and that hours of work are negatively correlated with studying ability.

Assaad, Ragui, Deborah Levison and Nadia Zibani, ‘The Effect of Child Work on School Enrollment in Egypt’, Report presented at Workshop on the Analysis of Poverty and its Determinants in the MENA Region, Sanaa, 2001.
This publication describes the relationship between work and school attendance in Egypt. It asks, ‘To what extent does work reduce school attendance?’ and ‘How does the definition of work affect one’s understanding of its gender implications?’  The answers to both: Work has a disproportionate affect on girls – whether in the labour force or in the household – and is more likely to keep them from enrolling in or attending school.
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Binder, Melissa and David Scrogin, ‘Labour Force Participation and Household Work of Urban Schoolchildren in Mexico: Characteristics and consequences’, 'Economic Development and Cultural Change', vol. 48, no. 1, 1999, pp. 123-154.
This article details the work experiences of over 300 children and their parents in western Mexico. It includes interviews with children, an evaluation of the relationship between hours spent in the labour force and children’s leisure time, and its negative effects on academic performance.

Bourdillon, M.F.C., ‘Child Labour and Education: A study from southeastern Zimbabwe’, in 'Journal of Social Development', vol. 15, no. 2, 2000, pp. 5-33.
This study examines the cultural context in Zimbabwe of company-run schools – Earn and Learn – on tea estates, working conditions and positive and negative implications for student labourers. It determines that working conditions are difficult and discipline can be harsh but company-run schools also provide benefits, such as access to estate health clinics, some recreation and leave time.

Canagarajah, Sudharshan and Helena Skyt Nielsen, 'Child Labor and Schooling in Africa: A comparative study', Social Protection Paper no. 9916, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1999.
This paper analyses the determinants of child labour in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Zambia in relationship to school attendance. It finds transportation costs to have the greatest effect on child labour and school attendance. Poverty and household composition are also an influence. The authors recommend specific measures to increase participation in education.
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Deb, Partha and Furio Rosati, 'Determinants of Child Labor and School Attendance: The role of household unobservables', Department of Economics, Hunter College, New York, December 2002.
This analysis of econometric models distinguishes between observed and unobserved household characteristics as determinants of child labour, school attendance and idleness. It concludes that households with a high propensity to send their children to school are poorer and have less educated parents.
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De Souza e Silva, Jailson and André Urani, ‘Children in Drug Trafficking: A rapid assessment’, 'Investigating the Worst Forms of Child Labor', no. 20, Brazil, International Labour Organization, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, G
This paper looks at child drug trafficking in the favelas, the low-income areas of Rio de Janeiro. Gleaning information from court records, the study finds that children engaged in drug trafficking are from the poorest families, have low levels of schooling and participate in trafficking to gain power and prestige. The paper includes a review of the literature on child labour and drug trafficking, quantitative and qualitative profiles of children involved in drug trafficking and policy recommendations.
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Ennew, Judith, ed., 'Learning or Labouring? A compilation of key texts on child work and basic education', UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 1995.
This is a collection of 80 short essays on the interaction between child work and basic education. Topics include the concept of childhood, children in the labour market, child exploitation, the history of education, compulsory education programmes, effective programmes for children living or working on the street and experimental approaches to combat the problem of child labour.

Haspels, Nelien et al., 'Action against Child Labour: Strategies in education -- country experiences in the mobilization of teachers, educators and their organizations in combating child labour', International Labour Organization, International Programme
This study compiles and synthesizes research from Africa, Asia and Latin America. It analyses where, how and why educational initiatives have been successful in combating child labour at local and national levels and provides specific strategies for employers, unions and community groups to end exploitative work. Case studies are peppered throughout to illustrate successful interventions. It provides guidelines for legislation and standards and demonstrates ways of collecting and using data in the fight to end child labour.

Haspels, Nelien and Busakorn Suriyasarn, 'Promotion of Gender Equality in Action against Child Labour and Trafficking: A practical guide for organizations', International Labour Organization, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Ban
This publication provides strategies for combating child labour as it pertains to both girls and boys. It pushes for more parental involvement in educating children, particularly daughters. It defines key terms, including gender, human rights, child labour and trafficking, and analyses gender differentials in child labour. It provides tools for promoting gender equality in campaigns against exploitative work.
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Heady, Christopher, 'What is the Effect of Child Labour on Learning Achievement? Evidence from Ghana', Working Paper no. 79, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 2000.
This study examines the relationship between children’s economic activity and learning achievement in Ghana, using reading and mathematics tests to measure school achievement and a household survey to measure labour activity. It concludes that child labour has a significant adverse effect on a child’s learning achievement.
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Ilahi, Nadeem, 'Children’s Work and Schooling: Does gender matter? Evidence from the Peru LSMS', World Bank, Washington, D.C., December 2001.
This investigation examines the determinants of boys’ and girls’ time allocations to schooling, housework and income-generating activities and details the econometric findings that indicated changes in household welfare affect girls disproportionately. The study states that safety nets to protect family income and the provision of child care can help keep girls in school.
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International Labour Office, 'A Future without Child Labour – Global report under the follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work', International Labour Office, Geneva, 2002.
This study identifies the global context for child labour, the scale of the problem, various forms of child labour and causes and exacerbating factors. It recommends responses required of the international community to combat the problem.
[External Web page]

International Labour Office, 'Combating Child Labour through Education', International Labour Organization, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Geneva, 2003.
This paper reviews the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour’s experience of using vocational skills training and formal and non-formal education to combat child labour. It explores the link between child labour and education and highlights good practices from around the world.

International Labour Office, 'IPEC Action against Child Labour 2000-2001: Progress and future priorities', International Labour Organization, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Geneva, 2002.
This document summarizes the International Programme to Eliminate Child Labour’s approach to ending exploitative work for children and achievements to date, thematic highlights and organizational and management issues and outlines the challenges ahead.
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Larsen, Peter B. , 'Indigenous and Tribal Children: Assessing child labour and education challenges', Child Labour and Education Working Paper, International Labour Organization, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Geneva, 2003.
This study analyses common forms of social exclusion of indigenous and tribal children, such as discrimination and cultural marginalization, and argues for a rights-based approach to ensure education for all. It evaluates projects and policies and makes recommendations for action, especially providing quality education to combat exploitative child labour.
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Lavinas, Lena, 'The Appeal of Minimum Income Programmes in Latin America', International Labour Organization, InFocus Programme on Socio-Economic Security, Geneva, 2001.
This paper outlines the benefits of the minimum income schemes implemented in Latin America in the 1990s and their role in helping to eliminate child labour, with particular attention paid to the Bolsa Escola school grant programme adopted in Brazil. The author argues for inclusion of minimum income programmes as a way of providing a social safety net that will ensure basic security for all.
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Maitra, Pushkar and Ranjan Ray, 'The Joint Estimation of Child Participation in Schooling and Employment: Comparative evidence from three continents', June 2000.
This is a comparative analysis of child labour and child schooling, simultaneously looking at the data on school attendance and children working from Ghana, Pakistan and Peru. Overall findings indicate that household poverty discourages a child from high achievement, but results differ markedly by country and by gender. (The link goes to a discussion paper from 2000. An updated version appears in Oxford Development Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, 2002.)
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Majumdar, Manabi, ‘Child Labour as a Human Security Problem: Evidence from India’, in 'Oxford Development Studies', vol. 29, no. 3, 2001, pp. 279-304.
This article explores the problem of child labour from the perspective of human security and development. It concludes that child labour should be investigated in relationship to deficiencies in public policy and social institutions and recommends that strategies for combating child labour be integrated into political and policy reforms.

Matz, Peter, 'Costs and Benefits of Education to Replace Child Labour', Working Paper, International Labour Organization, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Geneva, 2003.
This study looks at the net economic analysis of costs and benefits associated with universal primary and secondary education. It concludes that the benefits of universal education up to the minimum age of work would far outweigh the respective costs – as much as three times.
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Post, David, 'Children’s Work, Schooling and Welfare in Latin America', Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 2001.
This is a comparative study of schoolchildren between the ages of 12 and 17 in Chile, Mexico and Peru. It looks at practices over the previous 20 years to identify what helps or hurts children’s school attendance. Topics include the prevailing political and policy environments, family resources and regional poverty and gender differences. 

Rammohan, Anu, ‘Interaction of Child Labour and Schooling in Developing Countries: A theoretical perspective’, in 'Journal of Economic Development', vol. 25, no. 2, December 2000.
The study examines human capital investment in rural households of developing countries where child labour is prevalent. The author reports that an increase in child wages, including opportunity costs of schooling, leads to lower education investments and higher fertility rates. However, a decrease or increase in school costs does not affect fertility decisions, only the time allotted to school versus labour.
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Ravallion, Martin and Quentin Wodon, ‘Does Child Labour Displace Schooling? Evidence on behavioural responses to an enrollment subsidy’, in 'Economic Journal', vol. 110, 2000, pp. 158-175.
This report examines the effects of enrolment subsidies offered in Bangladesh on child labour and schooling. The authors find a strong link between the subsidy and school attendance, but its impact on child labour is smaller for girls than for boys.
[External Web page]

Rosati, Furio and Mariacristina Rossi, 'Children’s Working Hours, School Enrolment, and Human Capital Accumulation: Evidence from Pakistan and Nicaragua', Understanding Children’s Work Series, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 2001.
This report examines determinants of school attendance and hours worked by children in Nicaragua and Pakistan. Using a theoretical model, the authors analyse the effects of work on children’s school achievements. Based on their findings, they discuss policy implications as they relate to child labour and schooling.
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Salazar, Maria Cristina and W. Alarcón Glasinovich, eds., 'Child work and Education: Five case studies from Latin America', Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot/UNICEF, Florence, 1998.
This research explores the relationship of child work, school curricula and family preferences in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru. The authors conclude that the preference for work over school derives in part from an underestimation of the value of schooling and that improving school quality will help combat child labour.

Schiefelbein, Ernesto, 'School-related Economic Incentives in Latin America: Reducing Drop-out and Repetition and Combating Child Labour', Innocenti Occasional Papers, Child Rights Series no. 12, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 1997.
This research examines educational achievement levels in Latin America and identifies strategies to improve the quality and relevance of education systems. The author pays particular attention to initiatives that help working children enrol in and complete school.

Tomasevski, Katarina, 'A Human Rights Approach to the Elimination of Child Labour through Free and Compulsory Education', Working Paper, International Labour Organization, International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour, Geneva, 2003.
The author presents a human rights approach to the elimination of child labour and examines existing models linking the right to education with the prohibition of child labour. This report underscores the global consensus of the importance of education in poverty eradication and advocates for free, compulsory schooling.

United States General Accounting Office, 'Child Labor in Agriculture: Changes needed to better protect health and educational opportunities', Health, Education, and Human Services Division, United States General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C., 1998.
This report recommends strategies to increase educational possibilities for migrant and seasonal child workers in agriculture, including illegal workers, and suggests ways to improve oversight by the United States Department of Labor.
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