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References

Choices to be made

1. Shore, Rima, Rethinking the Brain: New insights into early development, Families and Work Institute, New York, 1997, p. 27.

2. Goleman, Daniel, Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ, Bantam Books, New York, 1995, pp. 193-195.

3. There have been several challenges to the belief that the ‘window of opportunity’ is absolutely crucial for reaching one’s potential, most notably John T. Bruer in The Myth of the First Three Years (The Free Press, New York, 1999) and Jerome Kagan in Three Seductive Ideas (Harvard University Press, Cambridge and London, 1998).

4. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2000, UNDP/Oxford University Press, New York, 2000, p. 2.

5. Evans, Judith L., with Robert G. Myers and Ellen M. Ilfeld, Early childhood counts, The World Bank, 2000, Washington, D.C. pp. 5-11.

6. McCain, Margaret N., and J. Fraser Mustard, Reversing the real brain drain: Early years study, final report, Ontario, Canada, April 1999, p. 19.

7. Ibid., p. 12.

8. World Bank Lending on Early Child Development, World Bank Human Development Network, September 1998, pp. 35-37.

9. United Nations Children’s Fund, Programme Notes Brazil, 1999.

10. Merhej, Rita Mufarrij, Jamal Chouaib and Rima Za’Za’, ‘The Hadicat-as-Salam Programme for Special Education’, First Steps: Stories on inclusion in early childhood education, UNESCO, Paris, pp. 77-84.

11. Diamond, Marian and Janet Hopson, Magic Trees of the Mind, Plume Book, New York, 1999, pp. 82-83.

12. Nathanielsz, Peter W., Life in the Womb: The origin of health and disease, Promethean Press, Ithaca, New York, 1999, pp. 137-139.

13. United Nations Children’s Fund, Programming for Safe Motherhood, UNICEF, New York, 1999, p. 11.

14. Ibid., p. 12.

15. LeVine, Robert A. et al., ‘Improve The Women: Mass Schooling, Female Literacy and Worldwide Social Change’ (unpublished manuscript), February 2000, p. 4.

16. Ibid., p. 33.

17. Myers, Robert, The Twelve Who Survive: Strengthening programmes of early childhood development in the third world, 2nd ed., High/Scope Press, Ypsilanti, Michigan, 1995, p. 11.

A necessary choice

18. United Nations Children’s Fund, Poverty Reduction Begins with Children, UNICEF, New York, March 2000, p. 6.

19. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2000, UNDP/Oxford University Press, New York, 2000, p. 222.

20. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic - June 2000, UNAIDS, Geneva, p. 21.

21. United Nations Children’s Fund, Poverty Reduction Begins with Children, op. cit., p. 1.

22. Ibid., p. 18.

23. Hai District Early Childhood Care workshop in Moshi (Tanzania), 8 May 2000.

24. United Nations Children’s Fund, The Progress of Nations 1998, UNICEF, New York, 1998, p. 29.

25. Andrews, Margaret, et al., ‘Household Food Security in the United States, 1999’, Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report No. 8, US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Food and Rural Economics Division, Washington, D.C., Fall 2000, pp. 1 and 4.

26. Black, Maggie, Growing Up Alone: The hidden cost of poverty. UNICEF, United Kingdom Committee, February 2000, p. 5.

27. United Nations Children’s Fund, Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, Alexandre Zouev, ed., M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, N.Y., 1999, p. 165.

28. Pan American Health Organization, Violence in the Americas: The social pandemic of the 20th century, 1997.

29. Hayward, Ruth Finney, Breaking the Earthenware Jar, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2000.

30. United Nations Children’s Fund, Equality, development and peace, New York, UNICEF, May 2000, section 5.

31. United Nations Children’s Fund, Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls, Innocenti Digest No. 6, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, June 2000, p. 12.

32. Ibid., p. 3.

33. Pan American Health Organization, Violence in The Americas, p.15.

34. Dinsmore, Christine, From Surviving to Thriving: Incest, feminism and recovery, State University of New York Press, New York, 1991, p. 21.

35. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, ‘Major armed conflicts’, SIPRI Yearbook 2000: Armaments, disarmament and international security, SIPRI, Oxford University Press, 2000.

36. Machel, Graça, ‘Impact of Armed Conflict on Children’, a report by the expert of the United Nations Secretary-General, A/51/306, 1996, pp. 9 and 14.

37. United Nations Children’s Fund, Facts and Figures 1998, UNICEF, New York, August 1998.

38. Goleman, Daniel, Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ, Bantam Books, New York, 1995, p. 203.

39. Central Bank of Sri Lanka Annual Report — 1999, p. 22.

40. ‘Arms for war derail Sri Lanka’s defence budget’, Reuters News Service, Colombo, 16 May 2000.

41. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic - June 2000, UNAIDS, Geneva, p. 6.

42. Ibid., p. 81.

43. Ibid., p. 124.

44. Ibid.

45. Ibid.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid., p. 6.

48. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the United Nations Children’s Fund, Children Orphaned by AIDS: Front-line responses from eastern and southern Africa, UNICEF, New York, December 1999, p. 3.

49. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, op. cit., p. 124.

50. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the United Nations Children’s Fund, Children Orphaned by AIDS, op. cit., p. 22.

51. Ibid., p. 3.

52. Ibid., p. 17.

53. Ibid., p. 5.

54. United Nations Children’s Fund, UNICEF Namibia 1999 Annual Report (internal publication), UNICEF, Windhoek, 1999.

The only responsible choice

55. Myers, Robert G., ‘Early Childhood Care and Development: A global review, 1990-1999’, The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development, February 2000, p. 11.

56. McCain and Mustard, op. cit., p. 13.

57. Boocock, Sarane Spence, ‘Early Childhood Programs in Other Nations: Goals and outcomes’, The Future of Children, Vol. 5, No. 3, Winter 1995 [http://www.futureofchildren.org].

58. Ibid.

59. Karoly, Lynn A. et al., Investing in Our Children: What we know and don’t know about the costs and benefits of early childhood interventions, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, 1998, p. 82.

60. The results of longitudinal studies on the effects of early childhood care interventions in the United States are reported fully in Karoly, Lynn A., et al., Investing in Our Children, and in Myers, Robert, The Twelve Who Survive, op. cit., p. 227.

61. World Bank, ‘Boosting Poor Children’s Chances: Early childhood development services for poor children in Brazil’ (draft policy report), 30 August 1999, p. 36.

62. United Nations Children’s Fund, Poverty Reduction Begins with Children, op. cit., p. 31.

63. Vandemoortele, Jan, Absorbing social shocks, protecting children and reducing poverty: The role of basic social services, UNICEF Staff Working Paper, UNICEF, New York, January 2000, p. 26.

64. Bruce, Judith, et al., Families in Focus: New perspectives on mothers, fathers and children, The Population Council, New York, 1995, p. 31.

65. Ibid., p. 33.

 

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