Education in Somalia
Somalia’s education sector is divided between three administrations: the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MoEHE) of Puntland; the Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MoEHE) of Somaliland; and the Ministry of Education of the Federal Government of Somalia based in Central South Somalia.
In Central South Somalia more than three quarters of public schools that existed before the civil war have been destroyed and/or closed and state intervention in the education sector has been limited. Some Somali intellectuals established privately owned educational institutions known as ‘Education Umbrellas’.
In Puntland and Somaliland relative peace and security has enabled the establishment of administrative and private institutions, which guarantee basic public services and facilitate enterprise-building. In Puntland the education budget increased to 7 per cent (2014) of the Government budget.
While the Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) in Somaliland and Puntland has shown little growth, it grew in Central South Somalia from 22 per cent in 2006/7 to 38 per cent five years later.
The percentage of secondary school-aged children who are attending school more than tripled from 2006 – 2011 in Puntland (from 9 – 32) and also tripled in Somaliland.
Nearly half of the population are rural and nomadic communities which are often denied their right to quality and equitable basic education. Formal schooling for children aged 6-17 years has been taken up by just 22 per cent of pastoralist children, with enrolment slightly higher among boys than girls.
The average primary Pupil-Teacher Ratio (PTR) in Somalia is 33:1 but this fails to reflect the enormous disparities across the regions. The percentage of certified teachers is still very low at 48 and 15 in Somaliland and Puntland, respectively. most of whom are male. In 2012/13, female teachers comprised 13 per cent of all.
Proxy data for assessing the survival rate to grade four shows that less tan half of those who enrolled in Grade 1 in 2006 successfully progressed to Grade 5 . Literacy rates, especially among young women are particularly low. In Somaliland and Puntland only 44 per cent and 37 per cent of young women were found to be literate.