How the survey was done
This quantitative opinion poll was based on 15,200 face-to-face
interviews with children and young people between the ages of 9
and 17, who are representative of the more than 93 million of their
peers in the 35 countries and the UN-administered Province of Kosovo
which were surveyed.
The survey, conducted between December 2000 and February 2001,
used the same methodology and questionnaire in all the countries,
making for comparable results.
UNICEF developed the master questionnaire in English which was
tested, finalized and translated into 34 local languages using "back
translations" (translation back into the original language
to check if meaning has been preserved) to ensure accuracy. In some
countries, questionnaires in several languages were used to reach
minority ethnic groups.
Household interviews were conducted by trained interviewers. A
total of 400 interviews were conducted per country, with the exception
of the Russian Federation and Ukraine where 800 interviews were
conducted in each. Each interview took an average of 40 minutes
The children to be interviewed were selected according to these
parameters - age, gender, geographical region and area (urban/rural)
of the country in which they live, as well as the socio-economic
status of their household. The number of children interviewed for
each of these criteria was in direct proportion to the official
child population figures for each country and a specific weight
was given to each country reflecting the proportion of its children
in the total child population of all countries surveyed. These measures
ensured an accurate and representative sample.
The interviews were conducted in line with the international "Guidelines
on Interviewing Children and Young People", issued by the European
Society for Opinion and Marketing Research. All children were interviewed
by trained pollsters in their own language and in their homes with
the permission of their parents or guardians, but not in their presence.
The interviewer and the child were alone during the interview to
encourage the child to answer all the questions freely and candidly.
The questionnaire contained both open-ended questions and closed
questions. Open-ended questions required spontaneous responses,
without orientation or prompting of any kind. Closed questions required
the respondent to select from several possible answers, the one
that best corresponded to what he or she thinks.
All the information and responses collected from the children were
entered into a database. Spontaneous answers to all open-ended questions
were analysed and coded to permit processing of the data. Finally,
the data recorded was processed, analysed and graphically presented.
The survey was conducted by the GfK Group, who co-ordinated the
work to ensure efficient planning, monitoring of the development
of the fieldwork, uniform data collection and processing, and quality
control for analysis and reporting.
The poll was sponsored by UNICEF with support from the Organization
for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the Office for Democratic
Institutions and Human Rights. It was carried out through the combined
efforts and support of various Geneva-based offices of the United
Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) - the Regional Office for Europe,
the Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth
of Independent States (CEE/CIS) and the Baltic States, and the Private
Sector Division, as well as UNICEF Country Offices and UNICEF National
Committees in Europe and Central Asia.
This information is provided as a contribution to
discussion on important issues affecting children. UNICEF Regional
offices conducted the polls, analysis and interpretations of the
findings. For more information, please contact the regional
poll contact person directly.