Diverse countries are making rapid progress in child survival – UNICEF report
More than 100 countries pledge to prioritize child survival
Manila and New York, 13 September 2012 – Countries across the world including the Philippines are making rapid progress in reducing child deaths, demonstrating that it is possible to radically reduce child mortality over the span of two decades, a UNICEF report says today.
The 2012 Progress Report on Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed examines trends in child mortality estimates since 1990, and shows that major reductions have been made in under-five mortality rates in all regions and diverse countries. This has translated into a sharp drop in the estimated number of under-five deaths worldwide. Data released today by UNICEF and the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation show that the number of children under the age of five dying globally fell from nearly 12 million in 1990 to an estimated 6.9 million in 2011.
The report underscores that neither a country’s regional affiliation nor economic status need be a barrier to reducing child deaths. Low-income countries such as Bangladesh and Rwanda, middle-income countries such as Brazil and Turkey, and high-income countries such as Oman and Portugal, have all made dramatic gains, lowering their under-five mortality rates by more than two-thirds between 1990 and 2011. In the Philippines the number of under-five deaths has been halved between 1990 and 2011.
“The global decline in under-five mortality is a significant success that is a testament to the work and dedication of many, including governments, donors, agencies and families,” said Anthony Lake, UNICEF Executive Director. “But there is also unfinished business: Millions of children under five are still dying each year from largely preventable causes for which there are proven, affordable interventions.”
“These lives could be saved with vaccines, adequate nutrition and basic medical and maternal care. The world has the technology and know-how to do so. The challenge is to make these available to every child.”
The report combines mortality estimates with insights into the top killers of children under five and the high-impact strategies that are needed to accelerate progress. In the Philippines highest rates of under five deaths are increasingly focused on the poorest, most remote areas of the country. For example, a child born in ARMM is four times less likely to reach their fifth birthday, than one born in NCR.
More than half the pneumonia and diarrhoea deaths – which together account for almost 30 per cent of under-five deaths worldwide – occur in just four countries: the Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. In the Philippines these two are also the main causes of child deaths, along with complications and infections during the neonatal period – one month after birth. And almost one third of those deaths are due to babies being born preterm - before the 37th week of pregnancy. The shorter the term of pregnancy, the greater the risks of death for the baby.
“ In the Philippines we now need to focus our energies on the neonatal period, as this is when 45% of the under five deaths occur. We need to ensure these young babies, many of them born too soon, don’t die before they’ve barely had a chance to live, ” said UNICEF Philippines Representative, Tomoo Hozumi.
Under the banner of A Promise Renewed, a movement for child survival is growing to re-energize, refocus and build on two decades of significant progress. The opportunity for further sharp reductions in preventable child deaths has never been greater.
Greater efforts are particularly required in populous countries with high mortality. In addition to medical and nutritional factors, improvements in other areas – notably improving breastfeeding rates, education, access to clean water and adequate sanitation, adequate food, child protection and women’s empowerment – will also improve prospects for child survival and development.