Child mortality rates a continuing challenge for Pacific states
Suva, 20 August 2008. – Child mortality rates are lagging in a number of Pacific Island states according to a just released UNICEF report.
The State of Asia-Pacific’s Children 2008 examines the latest trends in child and maternal health in 37 countries across a region that is home to half the world’s children. The report also looks at actions required to accelerate progress for children.
Pacific countries with the highest levels of child mortality are Papua New Guinea, the Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, the Republic of Marshall Islands and Solomon Islands. Under-five deaths per 1,000 live births range from 41 in Micronesia to a high of 73 in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.
Although child mortality levels have fallen in these countries since 1990, none appear to be on track to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) of reducing the mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. The UN Millennium Development Goals are a set of widely agreed upon anti-poverty targets to be reached by 2015.
Papua New Guinea – the most populous Pacific country in the study – accounted for 14,000 under-five child deaths out of the 15,000 that occurred in the Pacific countries measured.
Pacific countries which are on track to meeting MDG4 are Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Nauru, Samoa, Tonga, Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, and Niue but continued efforts are required in those countries to maintain momentum.
‘As the world enters the final laps towards the UN Millennium Development Goals’ 2015 target, we need political will and good strategies to significantly increase investment in public health services that specifically target the poorest and most marginalised.’
The most fragile period for a child in the Asia-Pacific is during the very first moments of life – if the baby is born without the help of a skilled birth attendant due to poor access or cultural practices, and if the mother is underweight, the chances of that baby staying alive becomes increasingly slim.
Pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition are the major causes of child death in the region. But vast inequities in income, geography, gender and ethnicity are essentially what stand in the way of children surviving and thriving.
Global achievement of the health-related UN Millennium Development Goals depends largely on India’s success and on China accelerating progress even further. In 2006 2.5 million child deaths occurred in these two countries accounting for nearly a third of all child deaths: India (2.1m) and China (415 000).