CRC and Mongolia
Mongolia was one of the first countries to ratify the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990 - the year democratic transition began in earnest in the country.
The transition brought about many changes in the political, social and economic paradigm - both positive and negative. The negative outcome of the transition had had strong affect on the lives of the children and adolescents - constituting almost 55% of the country's population.
The Mongolian parliament and the government, despite all the odds, invariably embarked on the road of building democracy and free market economy and for this to happen proper laws and legislation had to be adopted and implemented.
Many key bills, conducive to strengthening the foundations of democracy and free market, have been adopted by the Parliament since 1990 and the most important of them being the new democratic Constitution, promulgated in 1992. The new Constitution, for the first time in Mongolia’s history, has a separate chapter on human rights.
Basing on the letter and spirit of the Constitution and guided by the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Mongolia has adopted many laws and legislation protecting and promoting the rights of children. Some of them include the following:
(a) The adoption of, in 1996, he Law on Protection of Child Rights which provides a legal framework for actions concerning special protection of children (This law was amended in 2002 following the UN Special Session in Children);
(b) The adoption of, in 1998, the Social Welfare Law, which defines the types and scope of social benefits for, inter alia, orphans without legal guardians and children with disabilities;
(c) The adoption of, in 1998, the Health Law, which provides, inter alia, children with specialized medical care;
(d) The adoption of, in 1999, the Labor Code which regulates, inter alia, the employment of minors and their work conditions;
(e) The adoption of, in 1999, the Family Law which stipulates, inter alia, the parental responsibilities, adoption, custody and alimony;
(f) The adoption of, in 2000, the Law on the National Human Rights Commission of Mongolia and the establishment of that;
(g) The revision of, in 2002, the Criminal Procedure Law, which introduced separate sections on offences committed by juveniles and on crimes against children, family and society; and
(h) The adoption of, in 2004, of the Law against Domestic Violence with the aim to combat and prevent domestic violence and to protect of human rights of victims, including child victims.
With regard to the rights and status of children in Mongolia, the Government has made sustained efforts to emphasize the importance of this issue by declaring several thematic years, such as the Year of the Child in 1997, the Youth Year in 1998, the Year for the Development of Children in 2000, the Year of Support for Disabled Citizens in 2001, the Year of Family Support in 2004 and by organizing the National Summit on Children in 2004.
Mongolia has also ratified the following international conventions in recent years:
(a) Hague Convention No. 33 on Protection of Children and Cooperation in Respect of Inter country Adoption, in April 2000;
(b) ILO Convention No. 182 concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, in February 2001,
(c) Convention against Torture and Other Cruel Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, in January 2002;
(d) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, in March 2002;
(e) ILO Convention No. 138 concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment, in December 2002;
(f) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, in June 2003;
(g) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on Children in Armed Conflict, in October 2004.
The thirty-ninth session of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, based in Geneva, considered the second periodic report of Mongolia on 26 May 2005 and adopted Concluding Observations.
The Committee has recommended that the second periodic report and written replies submitted by the State party and related recommendations (concluding observations) it adopted be made widely available in the languages of the country, including through Internet (but not exclusively), to the public at large, civil society organizations, youth groups, professional groups, and children in order to generate debate and awareness of the Convention, its implementation and monitoring.