Polio is a virus which cripples and kills young children. While most of the world has been polio-free for years, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan and Nigeria remain the only countries that have never stopped poliovirus transmission.
Progress is being made, particularly in India, where the most dangerous type 1 wild poliovirus (WPV1) has not been reported in the polio-endemic states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in a record five months. Afghanistan also has been free of WPV1 since 8 January. India has recorded 19 cases in 2010, compared to 36 at this time last year, while Afghanistan has recorded eight cases - two more than at this time last year. Globally, there have been 84 cases of polio this year, compared to 383 at this time in 2009.
As long as India and Afghanistan continue to see polio transmission, all of their neighbors are at high risk of re-infection. In recent weeks, both Nepal and Tajikistan have been re-infected with poliovirus. Rotary International and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are providing emergency funds to facilitate immediate outbreak response activities in these countries.
“India is very close to becoming polio-free,” said Karin Hulshof, UNICEF Representative in India. “Every parent in India needs to continue vaccinating their children with polio drops each time it is offered until they are five-years-old. Every dose holds the promise of a healthy childhood.”
Cricketers in India have been intensively involved with the polio eradication effort since 2003, when the “Bowl Out Polio” campaign was launched by Sourav Ganguly, Rahul Dravid and Zaheer Khan. Today, players promote OPV vaccination nationally, and especially in the endemic states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
Since 2007, more than 40 per cent of type 1 polio cases outside UP and Bihar in India have occurred in migrant communities, underlining how critical it is for children to be vaccinated before they travel. “If we do not end polio in India, the rest of the world will suffer,” said Indian captain MS Dhoni, “Every parent must vaccinate their children regardless of travel schedules, work or anything else in our busy lives. Nothing is more important than our children’s future.”
In Afghanistan, polio has been largely restricted to Helmand and Kandahar where access to children has been compromised by ongoing conflict. Limited female service providers, an inadequate health infrastructure and regular population movements across the border into polio-infected Pakistan are other difficulties faced.
Yet despite these challenges and dangers, every year thousands of dedicated vaccinators go door-to-door for six nationwide polio vaccination campaigns organized by the Afghan Ministry of Public Health with support from UNICEF, WHO, Rotary International and other partners. Sub-national campaigns are also held in areas with persistent transmission. In 2009, approximately 7.5 million children were reached with oral polio vaccine (OPV).
Education and OPV are considered to be inextricably linked in Afghanistan, and among the most critical rights for children’s development. “My future as a cricket player was secured a long time ago, when I was a child,” says Raees Ahmadzai, member of the Afghan Cricket Team and founder of Afghan Youth Cricket Support Organization (AYCSO). “Vaccination is essential to protect our children from the crippling disease of polio. Education is the social vaccine to boost our society. Both are essential for the future of both girls and boys.”
Today over 6.8 million children are enrolled in primary education, including 1.8 million girls. Simultaneously, demand for health services has also increased. “Educated girls are educated mothers, who will make the right decisions for their children. Together we can ‘bowl out polio and kick in education,” said Catherine Mbengue, UNICEF Representative in Afghanistan.
Dr. Bruce Aylward, the Director of the Polio Eradication Initiative at WHO, paid tribute to the Afghanistan and India cricket teams for raising awareness of this issue at such a critical time. "Right now we have the best chance we've ever had to end polio forever," Dr Aylward said. The greatest threat to finishing the job remains a $1.4 billion funding gap to eradicate polio globally by end-2012. "These cricket stars are challenging the global community to stand up," Dr Aylward said, "The world must not squander this unique opportunity to bowl out polio once and for all."
Notes to editors:
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is led by national governments, with continued support from the spearheading partners--WHO, Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and UNICEF--as well as significant contributions by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and UN Foundation.
Since 1988 (the year the GPEI was launched), the incidence of polio has been reduced by more than 99%. In 1988, more than 350,000 children were paralyzed each year in more than 125 endemic countries. In 2009, 1606 children were paralyzed in 23 countries. Only four countries remain endemic: Nigeria, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
UNICEF is on the ground in over 150 countries and territories to help children survive and thrive, from early childhood through adolescence. The world’s largest provider of vaccines for developing countries, UNICEF supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS. UNICEF is funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of individuals, businesses, foundations and governments. For more information about UNICEF and its work visit: http://www.unicef.org/
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