Humanitarian Action Report 2007 - Homepage

MENA SUDAN

CRITICAL ISSUES FOR CHILDREN

Sudan continues to be a country characterized by diversity. While the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 brought hope for peace and stability, large pockets of humanitarian need persist. In Darfur, the situation of children, women and internally displaced communities remains tenuous despite massive mobilization of humanitarian assistance in the past two years. It is estimated that almost 4 million people have been affected by the conflict – 1.8 million of which are children – and about 2 million are displaced from their homes. Of the displaced, 1 million are estimated to be children and 120,000 have been newly displaced since April 2006. Humanitarian needs are on the rise and a possible upsurge in conflict threatens the fragile situation of the population, already suffering from the displacement and the very limited access to protection and basic services.

Blue Nile State, South Kordofan and Abyei remain characterized by fragile networks for primary health care, limited access to nutrition services and overburdened systems for water and environmental sanitation. Eastern Sudan continues experiencing intermittent insecurity and significant humanitarian need. 

In Southern Sudan, the long-term effects of the conflict continue to negatively impact children and women.  Problematic overland transport routes and the rainy season make access to some populations difficult. Basic social services are limited and inequitably distributed, with the return of some 240,000 people further increasing pressure in already vulnerable communities. Southern Sudan is host to rare tropical diseases, while malaria is endemic and measles, yellow fever, meningitis and cholera continue to take lives. Large areas are food insecure, acute malnutrition among under-five children is unacceptably high and micronutrient deficiencies remain problematic. While blanket HIV/AIDS prevalence is estimated at 2.6 per cent, rates of over 20 per cent have been recorded. Only 40 per cent of the people have access to safe drinking water while most do not have access to sanitary means of excreta disposal. The prevalence of diarrhoea is 43 per cent in children aged 6-59 months and guinea worm is endemic in some 3,400 villages. Despite efforts that have increased the number of children receiving basic education, hundreds of thousands remain out of school, while child-friendly learning spaces and qualified teachers are lacking. The exact number of children associated with armed groups is unknown, but it may be around 16,000. Large areas are known to be contaminated by landmines and unexploded ordnance.

PLANNED HUMANITARIAN ACTION FOR 2007

Health and nutrition: In Southern Sudan, UNICEF will immunize at least 3.2 million young children against measles and 2 million people against meningitis in case of outbreak; provide nutritional support to an estimated 300,000 children and 25,000 pregnant or lactating mothers, persons living with HIV/AIDS and other vulnerable people; aim to reduce global acute malnutrition rates to less than 15 per cent; ensure that up to 10,000 people affected by rapid onset emergencies receive medical supplies within 72 hours; and reach at least 600,000 young people with information and skills to reduce their risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS. In North Sudan, including Darfur, UNICEF will improve the quality of antenatal care and access to and attendance at referral hospitals for emergency obstetric care for 110,000 pregnant women and 98,000 surviving infants in Darfur state and increase husbands’/partners’ participation in safe motherhood/reproductive health services; ensure access to primary health care for 3.7 million conflict-affected in Darfur; protect under-five children and pregnant women against vaccine-preventable diseases; administer two doses of polio vaccine to 5.8 million under-five children; and reach 2 million people with health-related disease outbreak activities.

Water and environmental sanitation: In Southern Sudan, UNICEF will serve an estimated 80,000 returnees at way stations along major routes of return and at reception points; pre-position basic water and sanitation supplies for an additional 2,000 households affected by emergencies; assist an estimated 100,000 people living in guinea worm-affected areas through the creation of approximately 200 boreholes; train and adequately equip some 25 persons to train emergency response teams (ERTs) at the state level; and train about 200 counterparts for ERTs. In North Sudan, including Darfur, at least 539,000 emergency affected community members will gain access to improved water and be reached with hygiene messages, while 136,000 will gain access to adequate means of excreta disposal, and local capacity to respond to emergencies will be enhanced.

Education: In Southern Sudan, UNICEF will ensure that 750,000 children already enrolled remain in school; enrol an estimated 500,000 out-of-school boys and girls, orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and demobilized child soldiers as well as 100,000 returnee children, and promote their participation in basic education (including alternative learning systems for over-aged girls and out-of-school youth); improve the skills of 2,500 teachers/facilitators through fast-track training on interactive teaching methodologies, and provide intensive English language training to 200 returnee teachers. In North Sudan, UNICEF will ensure access to quality basic education for an additional 59,500 primary school-aged children, and nearly 9,500 nomadic children in Abyei and Darfur; strengthen the capacity of local educationalists through vocational and teacher training for 2,000 adolescents and 155 teachers; and reach 100,000 children and 200 teachers with correct information and life skills to reduce their risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and increase their ability to inform others.

Protection and human rights: Southern Sudan: UNICEF will reach 10,000 highly vulnerable children with community-based protection services; establish and train 300 community welfare committees; extend coverage of psychosocial activities to 10,000 vulnerable children and their mothers; monitor and address grave violation of children’s and women’s rights; support some 5,500 children with prevention of separation and/or family tracing services; increase acceptance of and community support for 3,000 persons living with HIV/AIDS and their children. North Sudan: UNICEF will coordinate child protection efforts in all three Darfur states; train on psychosocial care 1,000 teachers in 350 schools in South Kordofan, West Darfur and Khartoum; establish appropriate systems/mechanisms to document and respond to under-age recruitment by armed forces and groups; support the release of 1,500 children recruited or used by armed forces and groups and of those benefiting from reintegration services in need of support; support tracing, family reunification and reintegration services for some 1,500 displaced and separated children; provide psychosocial support, protection monitoring, information about returns etc. to some 150,000 vulnerable children/youth.

Mine action: UNICEF will raise awareness to avoid injury and death caused by unexploded ordnance and mines among 600,000 people, including internally displaced persons (IDPs), returnees and people in at-risk areas.

Coordination and common services: UNICEF will support the security of UN and NGO workers providing humanitarian services and attempting to access vulnerable communities in Southern Sudan.

Non-food items and emergency shelter: UNICEF will identify 30,000 vulnerable IDPs and returnee and host community households (about 150,000 people) in Southern Sudan through inter-agency assessments and provide shelter and relief items through area-based coordination mechanisms; provide 330,000 IDPs, returnees and vulnerable households in North Sudan with items to improve their living conditions.

Cross-sectoral support for return: UNICEF will reach some 500,000 IDPs in the North, 100,000 returnees in the South, and 2.5 million from the general population with information on movement, health, protection and well-being issues, including information about their rights, and ensure Government and other stakeholders are organized to assist returns in a coordinated and organized manner.

Basic infrastructure and settlement development: Benefiting some 900,000 people in 205 vulnerable communities, UNICEF will strengthen capacities of local administrations to provide basic services, improve infrastructure, promote participation and meet the needs of the population, including returnee and host groups.

Summary of UNICEF financial needs for 2007 (US$)

Sector

North Sudan, including Darfur

Southern Sudan

Total

Health and nutrition

39,797,195

10,400,000

50,197,195

Water and environmental sanitation

23,529,500

6,020,000

29,549,500

Éducation

  3,421,622

  8,500,000

11,921,622

Protection and human rights

  7,945,000

  2,525,000

10,470,000

Mine action

National

  1,971,200

Non-food items and emergency shelter

12,778,285

  3,200,000

15,978,285

Coordination and common services

         0

     800,000

     800,000

Cross-sectoral support for return

National

 

750, 000

Basic infrastructure and settlement development

230,760

0

230,760

Total*

87,702,362**

31,445,000**

121,868,562

* The total includes a maximum recovery rate of 7 per cent. The actual recovery rate on contributions will be calculated in accordance with UNICEF Executive Board Decision 2006/7 dated 9 June 2006.
** These totals exclude the national projects.