Gender equality

Stories from the field

2014 International Day of the Girl Child

Bangladesh - Mitali Rai, 15 talks about her experiences at a Child Friendly Space (CFS) at her home in Kalinogor, Kamarkhola. She is partially deaf and is embarrassed to go to school, but she she feels comfortable in the CFS.
© UNICEF/BANA2013-01033/Shafiqul Alam Kiron

Empowering Adolescent Girls: Ending the Cycle of Violence

UNICEF and its partners in all regions of the world are supporting investment in and empowerment of adolescent girls and the prevention and elimination of the various forms of violence they experience. Countries are exploring ways to better support families in positive parenting and effective communication for their adolescent girls, helping them manage risks and challenges, changing attitudes and social norms that encourage violence and discrimination against girls, implementing protective laws and policies, carrying out data collection and research, undertaking education and empowerment programmes, and taking direct action to address violence against girls.

  • Empowering girls

    (Democratic Republic of Congo) Child-friendly spaces provide a safe place for children to play and access psychosocial services in emergencies and have been a vital means of protection in camps for those displaced by the conflict in North Kivu in DRC. The programme has a special focus on adolescent girls. Staff members have been trained to offer psychosocial support, referral mechanisms, recreational activities, and programmes to address gender-based violence and prevention of HIV and AIDS. There is  a special emphasis on promoting girls’ participation and incorporating gender-responsive activities such as facilitated discussion groups for adolescents. 

    Impact: As of October 2012, each of the 48 child-friendly spaces in the country has separate discussion groups for girls and boys, each discussion group serving an average of 10 children. Findings suggest the groups have been very beneficial: girls felt valued, appreciated the recognition of their right to participate and felt empowered by having identified practical protection mechanisms and having helped establish them.  They also had greater knowledge on services available and how to access them. In some areas, members of the boys’ groups have created community vigilance groups against sexual violence, and they report on protection concerns to local leaders or police.

    For more information:


  • Girls’ and Young Women’s Empowerment Framework

    (Zimbabwe) The Girls’ and Young Women’s Empowerment Framework is the first national framework for protecting and empowering girls and young women in Zimbabwe. The Framework has been developed through a consultative process with girls and other key stakeholders and was launched on 15 October  2014 to commemorate the International Day of the Girl Child. The Framework’s vision is for empowered girls and young women to actively, effectively and meaningfully participate at all levels of social, economic and political development in Zimbabwe, with the goal of ensuring that at least 50% of girls and young women participate in these processes by 2020. 

    The Framework provides a guide for programming for girls and young women in the country, along with an action plan. The framework is divided into five key strategic areas of intervention with five related strategic goals in the areas of education, economic empowerment, safety and protection, reproductive health, and decision making and leadership. 

    The implementation of various empowerment initiatives will take place following the launch. In particular, the ongoing study on social determinants of violence against children will guide the design and planning of such initiatives to help adolescent girls address specific risks and social factors that make them vulnerable to violence in their homes, schools and communities.    


  • Supporting families, parents and caregivers

    T Mack LogoParents/Families Matter! (Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe

    The Parents/Families Matter! Program is an evidence-based, parent-focused intervention designed to promote positive parenting practices and effective parent-child communication around issues such as sex, sexuality, sexual risk reduction, HIV prevention, physical and emotional violence and sexual abuse. Parents/Families Matter! aims to heighten parents’ awareness of the important role they play in the lives of their children as they reach adolescence, enhance positive parenting skills, and prepare parents to communicate about sex-related issues with their children. 

    The programme is delivered through community-based, group-level interventions for parents and caregivers of children aged 9-12. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Parents Matter! Program in 1999, and adapted and evaluated it in Kenya in 2002-2003. Implementation began in 2004 under the name Families Matter! The programme is currently active in eight African countries – Botswana, Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe – with support from CDC and the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).

    In 2013, a sixth module on child sexual abuse was added to supplement the existing five-session Families Matter! curriculum. The aim is to increase parents’ awareness of child sexual abuse and how they can help prevent and, if necessary, respond to it. Families Matter! materials have been translated into 15 languages. 

    Result: Pre- and post-test results of Parents Matter! found that parents significantly increased their knowledge, skills, and confidence in communication with their adolescent children about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. An evaluation of the Families Matter! Program in Kenya showed that parents and children each reported significant increases in parental monitoring and improved communications around sexuality and sexual risk-related topics. The evaluation also showed that the intervention was well received by the community. 

    To date, the Families Matter! Program has reached more than 400,000 families. There has been a 90 per cent retention across program sessions in all countries. In 2014-2015, an outcome evaluation in Zimbabwe will assess the impact of Families Matter! across a range of measures related to child sexual abuse and physical and emotional violence. 

    For more information: Parental/familial guidance and support:


  • Parents Make the Difference

    (Liberia) In 2012 and 2013, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) implemented the Parents Make the Difference programme in Liberia. Adapted from various evidence-based parenting interventions, the programme uses behavioural skills training to teach positive parenting, child development and malaria prevention for parents of children aged 3-7. 

    Result: The IRC and Duke University researchers developed and conducted a randomized control trial for 15 months to examine the programme’s impact on parenting practices, children’s cognitive, social and emotional outcomes, and on malaria prevention behaviour among 270 participating families. Findings included:

    • Caregivers reported significantly reducing their use of physical and psychological punishment by a combined 25.4 per cent. This included decreases in specific forms of violence like beating, whipping and spanking, which declined by 60.3, 56.9 and 50.1 per cent respectively in the last four weeks of trial.  
    • The use of psychological punishment, such as yelling, decreased by 29.1 per cent.  
    • Children of caregivers reported an average increase of 17.9 per cent in positive parent-child interaction such as receiving praise and spending time together.  
    • Caregivers reported a significant increase in time spent playing with their child and non-violent methods of discipline, such as asking children who have acted out to sit quietly, rather than resorting to physical and psychological punishment.  

    Additionally, qualitative findings suggested potential unanticipated positive changes among participants’ families and communities, including decreased marital conflict and improved communication and problem-solving within the household. Participants were perceived as role models in the community. 

    Following the positive evaluation, the Government began scaling Parents Make the Difference (PMD II) nationally, starting in May 2014 to ensure sustainability of the programme. PMD II will target 1,000 vulnerable families in five communities who will take part in a three-year randomized control trial. A final research report on Parents Make the Difference will be released in fall 2014.

    For more information: Parents Make the Difference - International Rescue Committee, Research Brief: ‘Child and Youth Protection and Development’, March 2014 - Direct link not available at the time of publication.


  • Helping children and adolescents manage risks and challenges

    Stepping Stones (South Africa, global)

    Originally developed as an HIV prevention programme, Stepping Stones is a life skills training intervention that was found to be effective at curbing physical and sexual intimate partner violence among male and female 15- to 26-year-olds. The programme, which has been rigorously evaluated and implemented globally,  encourages participants to reflect on their attitudes and behaviour through role-playing and drama. Designed to improve sexual health by developing stronger, more equal relationships between partners, the programme addresses issues such as gender-based violence, communication about HIV, relationship skills and assertiveness. 

    Result: The programme has been evaluated in various countries: the most thorough study is a randomized controlled trial in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, with female and male participants aged 15-26. The findings indicated that, in the two-year period following the intervention, men experienced some reduction in violent and exploitative behaviour.  Compared with the baseline, participants in the intervention were involved in fewer incidences of intimate partner violence,  rape  and transactional sex. 

    Smaller-scale evaluations of Stepping Stones in many other countries have shown a reduction in male perpetration of intimate partner violence,    which further supports the findings of the Eastern Cape study. Stepping Stones stands alone as one of the few interventions to demonstrate effectiveness in reducing men’s violence against intimate partners. That the rate of violent behaviour continues to fall among men 24 months after the intervention following a 12-month drop suggests that positive behaviour change strengthens over time. 

    Further, qualitative research shows that Stepping Stones shifted attitudes, particularly among young men, by educating them on how they can reduce their personal risk to HIV and by encouraging much greater openness in talking about and sharing information about HIV. In the process, the programme appears to have instilled general life skills that made many of the men better partners, friends, family members and citizens. 

    For more information: Evaluation of HIV prevention & intervention programming

  • Empowerment and Livelihood for Adolescents

    (Bangladesh, Uganda, Untied Republic of Tanzania, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Haiti and Sierra Leone)

    Empowerment and Livelihood for Adolescents (ELA) is a program that offers hundreds of thousands of adolescent girls aged 14-20 the opportunity for a better life through mentorship, life skills and microfinance training. Pioneered in Bangladesh by BRAC, an international development organization, ELA departs from most skills programs in two respects: the program combines life and livelihood skills so social empowerment is reinforced by financial empowerment; and training is offered through adolescent girls’ clubs rather than in schools. The clubs help reach students as well as drop-outs and offer a ‘safe space’ where girls can discuss problems in small groups and build their social networks away from the pressures of family and male-centered society.

    Led by peer mentors, the programs educates girls on their rights, helps them resolve conflicts, and trains them in health and gender issues, including reproductive health. The girls learn the importance of staying in school and avoiding early marriage and pregnancy. Peer mentors also coach the girls in basic financial literacy – how to learn, earn and save – along with livelihood skills training, business planning and budget management so they acquire confidence and an entrepreneurial mindset.

    Result: The ELA program has been rigorously tested and shown to have positive impacts in the lives of girls. In 2014 the World Bank conducted an evaluation of ELA in Uganda, which is home to one of the world’s highest rates of young women out of the labor force and where teen pregnancy rates are in the range of 10 per cent to 12 per cent. The report found that, among ELA participants, compared to among adolescent girls who did not participate in the program:

    • Teen pregnancy rates were 26 per cent lower 
    • Early entry into marriage/cohabitation fell by 58 per cent 
    • Reports of having sex against their will dropped by half (7 per cent compared to 14 per cent among the control group)
    • Condom usage increased by 28 per cent  

    Additionally, ELA participants were 72 per cent more likely to engage in income-generating activities, almost entirely driven by self-employment. Their participation in the labor market was linked to significant increases in monthly consumer spending. Notably, the evaluation found no reduction in school enrollment rates among ELA participants. In fact, girls who had previously dropped out of school were 8 per cent more likely to want to re-enroll in school, which suggests a positive correlation between the empowerment of girls through vocational and life skills training and their willingness to invest in formal education.

    For more information: Women’s Empowerment in Action: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial in Africa


  • Changing attitudes and social norms that encourage violence and discrimination

    Soul City (South Africa)

    Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication is a Non-Government Organization (NGO) originally based in South Africa.  In partnership with the National Network on Violence Against Women (NNVAW), Soul City formulated an intervention to reach and teach communities about domestic violence through ‘edutainment’ – popular types of media such as television and radio. Rather than set up new offices, the programme recruits independent, local NGOs and supports them with training and resources to build a sustainable, self-reliant and locally branded communication platform. 

    By reaching the individual, community and social environments, Soul City’s mutually reinforcing education efforts have proven to be so successful that plans are in motion to expand the model to other countries.  Soul Buddyz, a multimedia project of Soul City, offers television, radio and interactive content that targets children aged 8-12 with potentially life-saving messages before they become sexually active, with strategies for dealing with bullying, racism, violence, sex and HIV/AIDS.

    Result: The results of an evaluation of the exposure to Soul City media from 1999 to 2000 revealed that Soul City reached 86 per cent, 25 per cent and 65 per cent of audiences through television, print booklets and radio, respectively. The evaluation also found a demonstrated link between public exposure to Soul City’s fourth series, which focused on domestic violence, and increased knowledge of support services: 41 per cent of respondents reported awareness of a South African helpline set up by Soul City.  

    This is entirely attributed to the fourth series and the joint National Network on Violence Against Women intervention as the line was established specifically for this purpose. Specifically, 16 per cent of people with no exposure to the fourth series compared to 61 per cent of respondents with exposure to a selection of 3 fourth series media knew about the Helpline.  Attitude shifts were also associated with the intervention, with a 10 per cent increase in respondents disagreeing that domestic violence was a private affair. Soul Buddyz was watched at least once by children aged 8-15, according to an assessment. 

    For more information: Sexual and Social health awareness and education


  • Promoting and providing support services for children

    A Multi-sectoral approach to establishing a child protection system (Malawi) 

    Malawi has made important strides in developing a comprehensive national child protection system. In 2010, the country passed the Child Care Protection and Justice Act to provide a strong legal and policy foundation for the protection of children. Malawi successfully established a multi-sectoral approach to child protection that includes legal, police, health, social welfare and education actors. The Ministry of Gender, Children, and Community Development has facilitated this work, leveraging its extensive reach at the community level with a network of 1,000 community child protection workers (700 volunteer and 300 salaried). 

    While there is work to be done to strengthen the capacity of child protection actors to provide high-quality, well-coordinated services, the foundation of an extensive child protection system is in place, anchored by a network of 300 community victim support units, 101 police victim support units, four one-stop centres, 14 child justice courts, two reformatory centres, a social rehabilitation centre, 10,200 community-based child care centres and a social cash transfer programme that reaches 319,000 households.

    The Ministry recently established a Child Protection Information Management System and is piloting innovative mobile reporting projects to improve data collection and analysis from the community at district and national levels. However, significant structural challenges persist. The recently completed Violence Against Children Survey highlights a culture of violence where two-thirds of all children reported having experienced violence before the age of 18.  

    Result: The architecture and expanded evidence base of the child protection system in Malawi marks a significant achievement, bringing together stakeholders from key ministries including health, police and justice. In 2013, the first national study on the prevalence of violence presented an historic opportunity to implement violence prevention and response programmes based on robust data. In 2013, more than 25,000 cases of violence were brought to established service points (One Stop Centres, Police or Community Victim Support Units). Developments included case management guidelines for use by the police department, a Child Justice Policy and health sector guidelines for dealing with violence. Public/private partnerships have been established with over 50 local and international civil society organizations.  

    For more information: Child protection case studies from around the world



    (Global) INHOPE is a network of hotlines in 43 countries around the world that is fighting child sexual abuse on the Internet. The network enables the public to anonymously report suspected child sexual abuse material. The complaints are then forwarded to law enforcement agencies and Internet service providers. 

    Result: INHOPE received more than 1.2 million calls in 2013 from 28 European Union countries (except Sweden, which did not participate)  plus Iceland, Russia, Turkey, Serbia, Bosnia, Herzegovina and North America (Canada and the United States). It forwarded 97 per cent of those calls to law enforcement within one day. In 93 per cent of cases the offending material was removed.  

    For more information: Monitoring and reporting child sexual abuse: 

  • Implementing laws and policies that protect children

    Strengthening child protection systems (Indonesia) 

    While Indonesia is classified by the World Bank as a lower middle-income country,  it has the resources to provide systematic and long-term support to vulnerable children. Yet the country has so far lacked a comprehensive approach to child protection. Government agencies have tended to respond to child protection issues on an individual basis rather than systematically assess potential violations of child rights and establish a national protection system to prevent them. 

    In recent years, that has changed. The government has worked to develop comprehensive laws, policies and regulations to protect children, improve the delivery and quality of services, and strengthen the professional capacities of child protection and related sectors. In 2011, the government led a mapping and assessment exercise to track child protection interventions at the provincial level, along with training for national mid-level staff from line ministries, members of Parliament and civil society representatives.

    Result: The 2011 training programme successfully influenced the National Development Planning Agency to address child protection more systematically. Child protection is now defined as a separate pillar in Indonesia’s National Medium Term Development Plan, the Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Nasional (RPJMN) for 2010-2014. This breakthrough is the clearest indication that momentum for change is building, and that key decision-makers are making a serious political commitment to the issue. 

    Since the initial training, the government has committed to building a national protection system, including piloting the Governance Indicator Framework for monitoring progress in policies, human resources and budgets for child protection at national and sub-national levels.  At sub-national levels, leading provinces and districts have developed local Child Protection System policies (‘Child Protection Perda’) and mobilized civil society and academic partnerships. The government is also committed to building a community-based care system that replaces the institutionalization of the more than half a million abused children by keeping families intact and providing parents with counseling and support services. 

    In 2014, in collaboration with UNICEF and the CDC, the government will publish a national survey on Violence against Children linked to the recent Presidential Instruction to end sexual violence against girls. A national campaign to address child violence is underway, and already has increased public attention and support through social media. These and other efforts have helped highlight the need for long-term government investments in child protection. As a result, child protection remains a top priority in the revised National Strategic Plan 2015-2019, which will be launched by the newly elected president in October 2014.

    For more information: Case studies on programming in child protection


  • Carrying out data collection and research

    Together for Girls (Botswana, Cambodia, Cote d’Ivoire, Haiti, Indonesia, Kenya, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe)

    Together for Girls is a global initiative that aims to mobilize and sustain a worldwide movement to end violence against children, with a particular focus on sexual violence against girls. The initiative is led by a global public-private partnership of five UN agencies (UNICEF, UN Women, UNFPA, UNAIDS and WHO), the US Government (CDC, PEPFAR and the Office of Global Women’s Health Issues), and private sector partners (Becton, Dickinson and Company, the Nduna Foundation, the CDC Foundation and Grupo ABC). 

    Experience has shown that, when government leadership activates participation across multiple social sectors and oversees the collection of statistical evidence on violence generated through rigorous methodologies, the impact is transformative. Not only are such efforts unveiling previously hidden prevalence rates of violence against children, they are also helping to break the silence around the issue and throwing the door open to greater investment in violence prevention and response services. 

    The initiative supports governments in conducting national household surveys to document the magnitude, nature and consequences of violence against children. The data are then used to mobilize political will to develop and implement policies and programmes to prevent and respond to violence. Key to the work is addressing the underlying drivers of violence against children and ensuring services are available for children who have experienced physical or sexual violence. 

    The initiative also seeks to fuel awareness and advocacy by sharing and otherwise leveraging evidence. To date, National Violence against Children Surveys (VACS) have been completed in Cambodia, Haiti, Indonesia, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Swaziland, United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe and are being planned or implemented in Botswana, Côte d’Ivoire, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia. 

    Result: Data from the VACSs in four of the countries surveyed reveal that approximately one in three females and one in seven males experienced sexual violence prior to age 18, and over half of all children experience physical violence before the age of eighteen. In response to these findings, each country is taking action to develop a holistic approach to prevent and respond to violence.

    For example, Swaziland adopted a Children’s Policy in 2009, and the Child Protection and Welfare Act has entered into force.  All countries that have published the VACS results have developed or are in the process of developing multi-sectoral action plans for prevention and response. In 2013, United Republic of Tanzania launched a three-year, multi-sectoral National Plan of Action to Prevent and Respond to Violence against Children. The plan sets out priority-budgeted actions across different sectors such as social welfare, justice, planning, health and education, as well as civil society and faith-based communities. The government has made a long-term commitment to strengthen its child protection system to effectively address child abuse and a social welfare workforce strategy to respond when abuse does occur. 

    For more information:


  • Education, empowerment and eliminating violence in schools

    FAWE’s Tuseme Youth Empowerment Programme

    One of FAWE’s flagship models is the innovative Tuseme [Let Us Speak Out] empowerment programme which uses theatre-for-development techniques to address concerns that hinder girls’ social and academic development.

    Tuseme trains girls to identify and understand the problems that affect them, articulate these problems and take action to solve them. Through drama, song and creative arts, girls learn negotiation skills, how to speak out, self-confidence, decision-making and leadership skills.


    • Improvement in girls’ self-esteem and in their leadership, social and life skills
    • Teachers’ positive attitudinal change towards girls
    • Significant reduction in sexual harassment

    Over 80,000 students have benefited from FAWE’s Tuseme model since 1996.

    For more information: 


  • Girls’ Education and Eliminating Violence in Schools Programme in West Africa

    (West Africa) Since 2011, with financial support by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France, UNICEF has led the implementation of four programmes supporting girls’ education and the elimination of SRGBV in Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Niger. More recently, with UNGEI’s technical and financial support, collaboration was strengthened between the programme countries at the regional level.

    Results: In terms of progress at the country level, in Côte d'Ivoire, policy advocacy efforts targeting child protection policy were undertaken in collaboration with the UNGEI country partnership. In addition, UNICEF continued its direct support to the Ministry of National Education and Vocational training to strengthen the coordination of its activities in this area through the establishment of a working group on protection. 

    In Mali, despite the onset of a complex emergency, efforts were made to identify and manage internally displaced persons who have been subject to various forms of violence; establish committees to play a proactive role preventing and managing violence related risks; & develop and facilitate adoption of a health center reference map for survivors. Interventions to date have made it possible to improve the prevention, care and documentation of GBV cases, and to increase understanding of the factors limiting the enrolment of girls in Mali.

    In Niger, efforts focused on supporting decentralized management on child-friendly schools; capacity building of staff to promote girls' education; and implementation of a community-based protection programme to promote the abandonment of harmful practices against girls, including early marriage and female genital mutilation.

    In Burkina Faso, the government and other implementation partners actively highlighted issues related to violence against girls in school. The Ministry of Education and Literacy reviewed guidelines for schools and education officials with a particular emphasis on addressing the issue of violence against girls; and the Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education focused on issues of self-defense and girls’ empowerment as preventive measures to address SRGBV as well as initiating a discussion on adolescent pregnancy as a barrier to schooling.

    For more information:


  • Girls’ Education Movement

    The Girl’s Education Movement (GEM) is a child-centred, girl-led global movement of children and young people whose goal is to bring about positive social transformation in Africa by empowering girls through education. GEM was launched in August 2001 in Kampala, Uganda at a conference attended by children and young people from throughout Africa. GEM initiatives, which often take the form of clubs, are active in in Eastern and Southern Africa. 

    In Uganda, in order to enhance retention and enrolment, GEM clubs were supported by UNICEF to develop children’s life skills and capacity to demand accountability from duty bearers for safe schools, quality education and retention.  GEM is in 48 districts, with clubs now functional in 2267 primary schools  bringing 4,573 children (girls 2,539, boys 2,034) back to school in 2013, an cumulative total of 14,662 (8,656 girls) out of the targeted 25,000 children by end of 2014; with further sustainability emerging as more districts initiate and manage these activities at the beginning of each term. In addition, music, dance and drama festivals were undertaken with 19,386 boys and girls participating at regional and National levels. 

    The theme for this years' festival was 'Zero violence against children in schools' which provided an opportunity to further sensitize school stakeholders about creating safe school environments for children. MDD festivals also contribute to improving retention of children in schools.

    For more information:  

  • Taking action to address violence against girls in Emergencies

    The creation of adolescent girl-only safe spaces in emergency settings have demonstrated impact (DRC, Pakistan, Kenya)

    Safe spaces should be established for adolescent girls in emergency settings. These spaces should be safe environments for adolescent girls to report protection concerns, incidents of gender-based violence (GBV) and to access support activities. 

    • As per minimum standards, psychosocial support program strategies at the safe spaces should include: case management services, individual counseling and group support activities, referrals and outreach.
    • The safe spaces should serve as a platform for the distribution of dignity kits which should include key items such as solar flashlights, whistles (if deemed appropriate in consultation with women and girls), material that can be used as clothing or during menstruation.
    • These services should be developed to ensure that they are relevant to adolescent girls.  In consultation adolescent girls to identify what time of day is best for each group.
    • Outreach activities should also be designed in ways that are relevant for adolescent girls.  
    • In some locations, this will require a “re-design” of the child friendly space approach to ensure that these spaces, whether mobile or static, are relevant for adolescent girls.
    • Including an economic strengthening component has proven to be essential to supporting adolescent girls’ access to safe spaces.  

    Building girls’ economic, social and human assets can have protective effects and increase their ability to make decisions critical for their safety and development in adolescence through to adulthood. Interventions should be integrated, combining economic assets (e.g. financial literacy and business skills trainings, access to safe savings and land) with interventions that build girls’ social capital (e.g. social networks, trusting relationships, and mentors), human assets (education, skills, health). ES interventions should promote, not compete with, girls’ educational needs, opportunities and goals. For example, ES-related curricula should include content geared toward opportunities for girls to enter or re-enter educational systems (e.g., through state-issued literacy exams).




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Key Messages

Ending the Cycle of Violence: IDGC 2014 
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Concept Note

IDGC Theme 2014
Empowering Adolescent Girls: Ending the Cycle of Violence
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