La situation des enfants dans le monde 1999: Education
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Références

Le droit à l'éducation

1. Rapport mondial sur l'éducation 1998, UNESCO, Paris, 1998, tableau 2, p. 124; Faits et chiffres 1998, UNICEF, New York, 1998.

2. Faits et chiffres 1998, UNICEF.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid.

5. Ces chiffres, fruit d'une analyse par régression des données de plus de 90 pays, représentent les effets marginaux de l'éducation après prise en compte de l'impact des niveaux de PNB et d'autres facteurs tels que le ratio habitants/médecin et le pourcentage de la population ayant accès à une eau de boisseau saine. M. Anne Hill, and Elizabeth M. King, 'Women's Education and Economic Well-being', Feminist Economics , Vol. 1, No. 2, London: Routledge Journals, 1995.

6. Lawrence H. Summers, Educating All the Children, Policy Research Working Papers Series, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1992, p. 6.

7. The Education of Girls and Women: Towards a global framework for action , UNESCO, Paris, 1995, p. 10.

8. Ce chiffre est basé sur le pourcentage d'enfants entrant en première année du cycle primaire de l'enseignement qui atteignent la cinquième année. Voir La situation des enfants dans le monde 1998, UNICEF, 1997, tableau 4.

9. Schooling Conditions in the Least-developed Countries; Synthesis of the UNESCO-UNICEF pilot survey, UNESCO/UNICEF, pp. 6-7.

10. David Hecht, 'Assane's story', The New Internationalist, No. 292, July 1997, p. 14.

11. A Human Rights Approach to UNICEF Programming for Children and Women , Part I, C3.

12. Thomas Hammarberg, A School for Children with Rights: The significance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child for modern education policy, Innocenti Lectures, UNICEF, International Child Development Centre (ICDC), Florence, 1997, p. 8.

13. The Internationalist, No. l, Oct. 1970.

14. Christopher Colclough, with Keith Lewin, Educating All the Children: Strategies for primary schooling in the South , Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993, p. 18.

15. Ibid., p. 13.

16. Ibid. p. 15.

17. La situation des enfants dans le monde 1989, UNICEF, 1988, p. 15.

18. Christopher Colclough, with Keith Lewin, op. cit ., p. 20.

19. Christopher Colclough, 'Who should learn to pay? An assessment of neo-liberal approaches to education policy', States or Markets? Neo-Liberalism and the Development Policy Debate , Christopher Colclough and J. Manor, eds., Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991, p. 206.

20. Le rôle de la coopération pour le développement à l'aube du XXI e siècle. Rapport adopté à la 34 e réunion à haut niveau du Comité d'aide au développement (OCDE), tenue les 6 et 7 mai 1996, p. 2.

21. D'après le Cadre d'action pour répondre aux besoins éducatifs fondamentaux adopté le 9 mars 1990 par la Conférence mondiale sur l'éducation pour tous (article 8).

22. Education pour Tous: Atteindre l'objectif. Document de travail pour la Réunion à la mi-décennie du Forum International Consultatif sur l'Education pour Tous, 16-19 juin 1996.

23. Mahbub ul Haq, and Khadija Haq, Human Development in South Asia 1998 , The Human Development Centre, Karachi, April 1998, p. 6.

24. Ernesto Schiefelbein, School-related Economic Incentives in Latin America: Reducing drop-out and repetition and combating child labour , Innocenti Occasional Papers, Child Rights Series No. 12, UNICEF, International Child Development Centre (ICDC), Florence, 1997, p. 2.

25. Thomas Hammarberg, op. cit., p. 20.

26. Ibid.

27. Edgar Sánchez, Ricardo Pinzón y Lilia Martínez, Escuela Amiga de los Niños: Documento Base, Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, 1998.

28. Jacques Delors et al., L'éducation: un trésor est caché dedans. Rapport à l' UNESCO de la Commission internationale sur l'éducation pour le vingt et unième siècle, UNESCO/Odile Jacob, Paris, 1996.

La révolution de l'éducation

1. Mary Joy Pigozzi, Implications of the Convention on the Rights of the Child for Education Activities Supported by UNICEF, UNICEF, New York, March 1997.

2. Vincent Greaney, S. Khandker, and M. Alam, Bangladesh: Assessing basic learning skills, University Press Ltd. and The World Bank, Dhaka, 1998.

3. Mary Joy Pigozzi, op. cit., pp. 6-8.

4. Vincent Greaney, and Thomas Kellaghan, Monitoring the Learning Outcomes of Education Systems, Directions in Development Series, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1996, pp. 5-6.

5. Vinayagum Chinapah, Handbook on Monitoring Learning Achievement: Towards capacity building. UNESCO, Paris, 1997.

6. Informations fournies aux participants au séminaire "Learning Achievement", organisé à l'UNICEF, New York, 18-19 septembre 1997.

7. Reaching the Unreached: Non-formal approaches and universal primary education , UNICEF, September 1993.

8. Situación educativa de América Latina y el Caribe (1980-1989) , UNESCO-OREALC, Santiago, 1992.

9. Marlaine Lockheed, and Adriaan M. Verspoor, Improving Primary Education in Developing Countries, Oxford University Press and The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1991, p. 183. Cited in Education News, No. 12, UNICEF, April 1995, p. 6.

10. Rosa María Torres, 'Repetition: A major obstacle to Education for All', Education News, No. 12, UNICEF, April 1995, p. 7.

11. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Rangoon, 17 mars 1998.

12. Ernesto Pollitt, Malnutrition and infection in the classroom , UNESCO, Paris, 1990.

13. Professeur Hussein Kamel Bahaa El-Din, «Le lien à établir entrela santé et l'éducation», EFA 2000, n° 30, janvier-mars 1998, UNESCO, Paris, p. 3.

14. Ibid., p. 3.

15. «La santé à l'école: diagnostic», EFA 2000, n° 30, janvier-mars 1998, UNESCO, Paris, p. 4.

16. Hugh Hawes, ed., Health Promotion in Our Schools, The Child-to-Child Trust in association with UNICEF, 1997, p. 14.

17. Bruce Dick, 'School health revisited', Education News , No. 16, UNICEF, April 1996, p. 23.

18. Ibid., p. 24.

19. John C. Caldwell, 'Routes to Low Mortality in Poor Countries', Population and Development Review, 12 February 1986, cited in Santosh Mehrotra, and Richard Jolly, Development with a Human Face, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997, p. 64.

20. Schooling conditions in the least-developed countries, Synthesis of the UNESCO-UNICEF Pilot Study, UNESCO/UNICEF.

21. Santosh Mehrotra, and E. Delamonica, 'Household costs and public expenditure on primary education in five low-income countries: A comparative analysis', International Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1998, pp. 41-61.

22. Marlaine Lockheed, and Adriaan M. Verspoor, op. cit .

23. Séance d'information de Natalie Hahn, UNICEF, New York, 23 janvier 1998.

24. Strengthening Primary Education in Poor Areas, information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF en Chine, 27 mars 1998.

25. Marlaine Lockheed, and Adriaan M. Verspoor, op. cit ., p. 146.

26. Qui que vous soyez, où que vous viviez ne devraient pas compter - Réduire les inégalités dans le domaine de l'éducation , Dossier d'information, Conférence mondiale sur l'Education pour Tous, 1990.

27. 'Escuela Nueva: une autre façon d'apprendre', La situation des enfants dans le monde 1997, UNICEF, 1996, pp. 58-59.

28. Ernesto Schiefelbein, In search of the school of the XXI century: Is the Colombia Escuela Nueva the right pathfinder? UNESCO/UNICEF, Santiago, 1991.

29. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Manille, mars 1998.

30. School in a backpack: The mobile teaching project , UNICEF Manila.

31. Anthony Bloome, 'Bringing the Classroom Across the World - Distance Education in Africa', Africa Communications, Nov./Dec. 1995, p. 33.

32. Andra Bosch, Interactive Radio Instruction: Twenty-three years of improving educational quality, Education and Technology Notes, The World Bank, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1997, p. 2.

33. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Katmandou, 27 avril 1998.

34. 'Educating Girls in Bangladesh: Exploding the myth', in Reaching the Unreached: Non-formal approaches and universal primary education , UNICEF, September 1993.

35. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Dhaka, mai 1998.

36. Catherine H. Lovell et Kaniz Fatema, «Le programme d'éducation primaire non formelle du BRAC au Bangladesh», Les Carnets de l'enfance, UNICEF, New York, 1990.

37. Primary Education for All: Learning from the BRAC experience, Academy for Educational Development, Washington, D.C., 1993.

38. Reaching Ugandan Children Out of School, Government of Uganda/UNICEF, 18 March 1998.

39. Patrick Luganda, 'Giving older children a chance', New Vision, Vol. 12, No. 58, 8 March 1997, Kampala, Uganda.

40. Cité dans The Learning of Those Who Teach: Towards a new paradigm of teacher education , UNICEF/UNESCO.

41. Rapport mondial sur l'éducation 1998, UNESCO, Paris, 1998, p. 38.

42. Santosh Mehrotra, and Peter Buckland, Managing Teacher Costs for Access and Quality , UNICEF Staff Working Paper, EPP-EVL-98-004, 1998.

43. A. Adedeji, R. Green, and A. Janha, Pay, Productivity and Public Service: Priorities for recovery in sub-Saharan Africa, UNICEF, 1995.

44. Rapport mondial sur l'éducation 1998, op. cit. , p. 45.

45. What Matters Most: Teaching for America's future, Report of the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, Summary Report, New York, 1996, p. 9.

46. Rosa María Torres, Teacher Education: From rhetoric to action , paper to the International Conference on 'Partnerships in Teacher Development for a New Asia', UNESCO-UNICEF, Bangkok, 6-8 December 1995, p. 11.

47. Marlaine Lockheed, and Adriaan M. Verspoor, op. cit., p. 95.

48. Rosa María Torres, Teacher Education: From rhetoric to action, op. cit., p. 32.

49. 'The Zimbabwe Integrated Teacher Education Course (ZINTEC)', The Learning of Those Who Teach: Towards a new paradigm in teacher education , UNICEF/UNESCO.

50. Jude Henriques, Teacher Empowerment in Madhya Pradesh: A cost-effective strategy for universalization of primary education , UNICEF India, New Delhi, 1995.

51. Education for All? The MONEE Project. CEE/CIS/Baltics Regional Monitoring Report No. 5, 1998, UNICEF, International Child Development Centre (ICDC), Florence, 1998, p. 32.

52. Towards Quality Primary Education: IDEAL project , brochure produced by the Directorate of Primary Education, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh/UNICEF, Dhaka.

53. 'Network for Teaching Upgrading Centres (NTUC)', The Learning of Those Who Teach: Towards a new paradigm of teacher education , UNICEF/UNESCO.

54. 'The Talleres de Educación Democrática - TED, Democratic Education Workshops', The Learning of Those Who Teach: Towards a new paradigm of teacher education , UNICEF/UNESCO.

55. Lucia D'Emilio, Voces y procesos desde la pluralidad , Centre international pour le développement de l'enfant, UNICEF, Florence, 1997 (projet).

56. Elaine Furniss, Primary Education: The development of bilingual literacy materials for ethnic minorities in Viet Nam , Innocenti Seminar on Ethnic Minorities, Immigrants and Indigenous Peoples, 7-15 October 1996, pp. 1, 4, 7, 10.

57. Faits et chiffres 1998, UNICEF.

58. Bureau de statistique, Organisation internationale du Travail, Genève, 1996.

59. La situation des enfants dans le monde 1997, UNICEF, 1996, p. 70.

60. UNICEF and Egyptian Ministry of Education paper, 1995, quoted in Shirley J. Miske, Developing a Girl-friendly Learning Environment, consultancy report for UNICEF, 1997.

61. Faits et chiffres 1998, UNICEF.

62. Déclaration mondiale sur l'éducation pour tous, article 3, point 3.

63. Santosh Mehrotra, and Richard Jolly, eds., Development with a Human Face, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997.

64. Anna Obura, Donor Progress report, Norway/UNICEF Africa: Girls education programme, October 1996-August 1997, UNICEF East and Southern Africa Regional Office.

65. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Bamako, mars 1998.

66. 'Programme for the Advancement of Girls' Education (PAGE)', Yearly Technical Report on the AGEI Programme in Zambia, draft, 9 January 1998.

67. Women Making a Difference: Dynamic African headmistresses, FAWE, 1995.

68. Pauline Rose, Yoseph Getachew, Berihun Asmaru, and Nuresu Tegegn, Gender and Primary Schooling in Ethiopia, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, England, March 1997, p. 155.

69. Le FAWE/IDS définit l'enseignement pour tous comme l'existence d'un système scolaire admettant tous les enfants réunissant les conditions requises dans des écoles d'une qualité au moins acceptable, ce qui impliquerait un taux net de scolarisation d'environ 95%. Tiré de Christopher B. Colclough, with Keith Lewin, op. cit., p. 41.

70. Shirley J. Miske, Developing a Girl-friendly Learning Environment , rapport d'une consultation pour l'UNICEF, 1997.

71. Communication de Sandra Mason, Présidente du Comité des droits de l'enfant, à M me Myra Moeka'a, Ministre des Affaires Extérieures, Iles Cook, 6 octobre 1997.

72. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Gaborone, 6 mars 1998.

73. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF au Nigéria, juin 1998.

74. Rapport mondial sur l'éducation 1998, op. cit. , p. 160.

75. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF au Brésil, 9 avril 1998.

76. Social and Political Mobilization of Education for All: The Brazilian experience , Brazilian Ministry of Education and Sport,1997.

77. Popular participation, Mobilization and Decentralization for EFA, background paper for panel discussion at the Education for All Summit in New Delhi, 12-16 December 1993, UNICEF, p. 12.

78. 'Inspiring Experiences: National School Enrolment Day in the Philippines', Education News, No. 16, UNICEF, April 1996, p. 22.

79. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Manille, 1996.

80. Free Primary Education: The Malawi experience 1994-1998, A policy analysis study conducted by the Ministry of Education with UNICEF, Blantyre (Malawi), 1998, p. 1.

81. Social and Political Mobilization of Education for All: The Brazilian experience , op. cit., p. 22

82. Santosh Mehrotra, and Jan Vandemoortele, Cost and Financing of Primary Education: Options for reform in sub-Saharan Africa , UNICEF Staff Working Paper, EVL-97-006, 1997, p. 33.

83. Mark Bray, Counting the Full Cost: Parental and community financing of education in East Asia , The World Bank and UNICEF, 1996, p. 33, Fig. 1.

84. Santosh Mehrotra, and E. Delamonica, op. cit.

85. Cité dans Towards Quality Primary Education , op. cit.

86. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Dhaka, 16 mars 1998.

87. Marlaine Lockheed, and Adriaan M. Verspoor, op. cit., p. 118.

88. 'Interview with Ana Luíza Machado Pinheiro', Education News, No. 17-18, UNICEF, February 1997, p. 33.

89. School-based Management Takes Root in Brazil, UNICEF paper based on 'Interview with Ana Luíza Pinheiro', op. cit.

90. Information fournie par le bureau de l'UNICEF à Rangoon, 17 mars 1998.

91. Martin Carnoy, 'National Voucher Plans in Chile and Sweden: Did privatization reforms make for better education?', Comparative Education Review, Vol. 42, No. 3, August 1998, pp. 309-337.

92. Déclaration mondiale sur l'éducation pour tous , article 5.

93. J. Dobbing, and J. Sands, 'The qualitative growth and development of the human brain', Archives of Diseases of Children, 48 (1973),pp. 757-767. Cité dans Cassie Landers, 'A Theoretical Basis for Investing in Early Child Development', Innocenti Global Seminar on Early Child Development, UNICEF, International Child Development Centre (ICDC), Florence, 1989, p. 4.

94. Applying Educational Research for Better Learning , Discussion Notes #11 for the EFA Mid-decade Review, The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development, 1996.

95. Reynaldo Martorell, 'Undernutrition during Pregnancy and Early Childhood: Consequences for cognitive and behavioral development', in Mary Eming Young, ed., Early Child Development: Investing in our children's future, The World Bank, Elsevier 1997, p. 39.

96. Early Childhood Development: The challenge and the opportunity , UNICEF, 1993.

97. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Family and Human Development Across Cultures: A view from the other side , Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N. J., 1996.

98. John Bennett, 'Early Childhood Care and Education Today - Worldwide Trends'. In Lilian Katz, ed., International Encyclopedia of Education, 2d ed., New York, Pergamon, 1993. Cité dans Mary Eming Young, ed., Early Child Development: Investing in the future, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1996, p. 3.

99. Cynthia Guttman, On the Right Track, EFA Innovations Series No. 5, UNESCO 1994, pp. 16-18.

100. Children's Resources International, Inc. and the Step by Step Programme. Information supplied by CRI, 2 September 1998.

101. Education for All? The MONEE Project. CEE/CIS/Baltics Regional Monitoring Report No. 5, op. cit., p. 71.

102. Janet C. Holdsworth, and Phannaly Theppa Vongsa, 'Experiences in Provision for Children with Disabilities using the Kindergarten Sector' in First Steps: Stories on inclusion in early childhood education, UNESCO, 1997, p. 68.

103. Cigdem Kagitcibasi, 'Parent Education and Child Development', in Mary Eming Young, ed., Early Child Development: Investing in our children's future, The World Bank, Elsevier, 1997, p. 251.

104. Pratham-Mumbai Education Initiative Newsletter , February 1998.

105. The Early Child Care and Development Initiatives: Pioneering efforts in Nigeria , report by UNICEF Nigeria, 1998.

Investir dans les droits de l'homme

1. Professeur Masa-aki Fukuda, Faculté de droit de l'université Hitotsubashi, Tokyo, dans une communication intitulée The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Situation of Children in Japan, 1996, cité dans Thomas Hammarberg, op. cit., p. 6.

2. Jörgen Christensen, Omvärlden, No. 8/96, SIDA, traduit et cité dans Thomas Hammarberg, ibid., p. 14.

3. Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Death Without Weeping; The violence of everyday life in Brazil, University of California, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1992, p. 156.

4. Mahbub ul Haq, and Khadija Haq, op. cit., pp. 44, 51.

5. Mahbub ul Haq, Reflections on Human Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995.

6. Il s'agit des pays suivants: Barbade, Botswana, Costa Rica, Cuba, Etat du Kerala (Inde), Malaisie, Maurice, République de Corée, Sri Lanka et Zimbabwe. Voir Santosh Mehrotra, and Richard Jolly, eds., Development with a Human Face, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997. Voir aussi Santosh Mehrotra, 'Education for All: Policy lessons from high-achieving countries,' in International Review of Education, Vol. 44, No. 5/6, 1998, pp. 1-24.

7. Santosh Mehrotra, ibid.

8. Paul Bennell, with Dominic Furlong, Has Jomtien Made Any Difference? Trends in Donor Funding for Education and Basic Education Since the Late 1980s, IDS Working Paper 51, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex University, United Kingdom, p. 26.

9. Paul Bennell, with Dominic Furlong, ibid., p. 6.

10. Paul Bennell, with Dominic Furlong, ibid., table 10, p. 22.

11. Communication from Ms. Maris O'Rourke, Director, Human Development Network, Education Sector, The World Bank, 25 March 1998.

12. Paul Bennell, with Dominic Furlong, op. cit., pp. 11-12.

13. Communication de Maris O'Rourke, op. cit.

14. Christopher B. Colclough, with Keith Lewin, op. cit ., p. 27.

15. M. E. Lockheed, D. Jamison, and L. Lau, 'Farmer Education and Farm Efficiency: A survey,' Economic Development and Cultural Change, 29 (1), Oct. 1980, pp. 37-76. Cité dans Christopher B. Colclough, with Keith Lewin, op. cit., p. 30.

16. Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 1991 , Banque mondiale, Paris, 1991, Fig. 3.3, p. 68.

17. Lawrence H. Summers, Investing in All the People, Quad-i-Azam Lecture at the Eighth Annual General Meeting of the Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Islamabad, January 1992, The World Bank, Washington, D.C., p. 6.

18. Ibid., p. 11.

19. Amartya Sen, 'Agency and Well-Being: The development agenda', in N. Heyzer, with S. Kapoor and J. Sandler, A Commitment to the World's Women: Perspectives on development for Beijing and beyond, UNIFEM, New York, 1995. Cité dans Santosh Mehrotra, and Richard Jolly, op. cit.

20. Le Groupe des Sept est composé des sept pays les plus industrialisés du monde: Allemagne, Canada, Etats-Unis d'Amérique, France, Italie, Japon et Royaume-Uni.

21. Howard W. French, 'Africans Resentful as Asia Rakes in Aid', The New York Times, 8 March 1998.

22. Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 1997 , Banque mondiale, Paris, 1997, p. 246.

23. Kevin Watkins, Oxfam International, Financial Times, 23 January 1998.

24. Cité dans Howard W. French, op. cit.

25. Joseph E. Stiglitz, More Instruments and Broader Goals: Moving toward the post-Washington consensus. WIDER Annual Lectures 2. World Institute for Development Economics Research. The United Nations University, Helsinki, 1998.

26. Estrella Gutiérrez, 'New Consensus Emerges from Social Debris', International Press Service, Caracas, 15 June 1998.

27. Mahbub ul Haq, and Khadija Haq, op. cit.

28. Donner effet à l'Initiative 20/20: assurer un accès universel aux services sociaux de base, une publication conjointe Banque mondiale, FNUAP, OMS, PNUD, UNESCO et UNICEF, New York, septembre 1998.

29. E. Delamonica, S. Mehrotra, and J. Vandemoortele , Universalising Primary Education: How much will it cost?, UNICEF Staff Working Paper (à paraître).

30. Rapport mondial sur le développement humain 1998 , PNUD, Paris, 1998, tableau 1.12.

 

 
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