18 October 2001: ENGLISH ONLY
NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND (UNICEF)
UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE
GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN
SAVE THE CHILDREN ALLIANCE FOR THE NGO GROUP FOR THE CONVENTION
ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD
OF THE EAST ASIA AND THE PACIFIC REGIONAL CONSULTATION FOR THE
SECOND WORLD CONGRESS AGAINST COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF
Bangkok, 16-18 October 2001
ORGANIZATION OF THE REGIONAL CONSULTATION
The East Asia and the Pacific
Regional Consultation for the Second World Congress against
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children was held at Bangkok
from. 16 to 18 October 2001.
The Regional Consultation was co-organized by the United Nations
Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Economic and Social Commission
for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), ECPAT International, and Save
the Children Alliance for the NGO Group for the Convention on
the Rights of the Child, in cooperation with the Government of
The Regional Consultation was one of a series of six being
organized worldwide. The outcome of the Regional Consultation
would be presented at the Second World Congress against Commercial
Sexual Exploitation of Children, which would be hosted by the
Government of Japan in Yokohama, from 17 to 20 December 2001.
The Second World Congress was being co-organized by UNICEF, ECPAT
International and the NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights
of the Child.
At the First World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation
of Children held at Stockholm in 1996, Government leaders had
undertaken a joint commitment to further the protection of children
from commercial sexual exploitation, sex tourism, trafficking
and pornography. All participating governments had adopted
the Stockholm Declaration and Agenda for Action against the Commercial
Sexual Exploitation of Children and confirmed their agreement
to establish country focal points and to develop national plans
of action by the year 2000.
The objectives of the Regional Consultation were to:
Review progress in the implementation of the Stockholm
Agenda for Action since the First World Congress against Commercial
Sexual Exploitation of Children in 1996 and identify gaps in action;
Highlight and share “good practices” being undertaken by
Governments, non-governmental partners and international organizations;
Identify priority concerns for further action;
Formulate a Regional Commitment and Action Plan that would
be presented to the Second World Congress against Commercial Sexual
Exploitation of Children, to be hosted by the Government of Japan
in Yokohama from 17 to 20 December 2001.
The Regional Consultation was attended by 252 representatives
from the following:
Governments of East Asia and the Pacific: Cambodia, China,
Cook Islands, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Fiji, Indonesia,
Japan, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Macao, China, Malaysia,
Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Papua New
Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Thailand, United
States of America, Vanuatu and Viet Nam. Representatives
from the following Governments also attended: Belgium, Holy See
United Nations bodies and specialized agencies: United
Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP), United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA), Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
(UNAIDS), United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention
(UN/ODCCP), International Labour Organization (ILO), United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), World
Bank (WB), World Health Organization (WHO), and World Tourism
Inter-governmental organizations: Asian Development Bank
(ADB) and the International Organization for Migration (IOM).
Non-governmental organizations: Global Alliance Against
Traffic in Women (GAATW), Thailand; International Planned Parenthood
Federation (IPPF), Malaysia, and NGO Group for the Convention
on the Rights of the Children, Switzerland.
Other entities: Agir Pour les Femmes en Situation
Precaire (AFESIP), Cambodia; Asian Research Center for Migration
(ARCM), Thailand; Australian Agency for International Development
(AusAID), Australian Embassy, Thailand; Cantho Charitable Institution,
Viet Nam; Cambodian Centre for the Protection of Children’s Rights
(CCPCR), Cambodia; Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA),
Canadian Embassy, Thailand; Center for the Protection of Children’s
Rights Foundation (CPCR), Thailand; Center for Study and Child
Protection (PKPA), Indonesia; Child Rights Foundation, Cambodia;
Child Rights, Republic of Korea; Children Rights Committee, Cambodia;
Child Workers in Asia (CWA), Thailand; Chulalongkorn University,
Thailand; Church World Service, Lao People’s Democratic Republic;
Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom,
Thailand; Duang Prateep Foundation, Thailand; ECPAT Australia;
ECPAT Japan-Kansai, Japan; ECPAT Japan-STOP, Japan; ECPAT New
Zealand; ECPAT Philippines; ECPAT Prevention Project, Thailand;
Fight Against Child Exploitation (FACE), Thailand; Forum Komunikasi
Perempuan Timor Loro Sae (FOKUPERS), Timor; Good Shepherd Sisters,
Thailand; International Justice Mission, Thailand Justice Center,
Thailand; International Save the Children Alliance, Thailand;
Japan Foundation Bangkok, Thailand; Kaugmaon Foundation, Philippines;
KKSP Foundation, Indonesia; Lihuk Incorporated, Philippines; Malaysian
Child Resource Institute, Malaysia; Malaysian National Council
for Child Welfare, Malaysia; National Commission for Child Protection
(KOMNAS-PA), Indonesia; National Council for Child Youth Development
of Thailand (NCYD), Thailand; Philippine Educational Theater Association,
Philippines; PREDA Foundation, Philippines; Regional Working Group
on Child Labour (RWG-CL), Thailand; SAMIN Foundation, Indonesia;
Save the Children Alliance, Thailand; Save the Children Myanmar;
Save the Children Sweden, Thailand and Viet Nam; Save the Children
Fund, UK (SEAPRO), Thailand; Stifung Kinderdorg Pestalozzi (SKIP),
Cambodia; Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
(SIDA), Sweden; Tearfund, Cambodia; Terre des Hommes, Thailand
and Viet Nam; University of the Philippines; World Vision Development
Foundation, Philippines; World Vision Foundation of Thailand;
World Vision Myanmar, Thailand.
Observers: ECPAT International, Thailand and United
Kingdom; Center for Study and Child Protection (PKPA), Indonesia;
University of Calgary; Tourism Authority of Thailand; Atma Jaya
Catholic University, Indonesia; Thai Private Sector Organization,
Thailand; Ray of Hope, Nepal; Project NGO Coordination – addressing
Child Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, Thailand; Asia Foundation,
Thailand; SEAFILD, Thailand; IAP-TWE, Cambodia; Community Theatre
Project, Thailand; Mediaset, Italy; UN-IAP Cambodia.
OPENING OF THE REGIONAL CONSULTATION
The Executive Secretary of ESCAP, the Regional Representative
of UNICEF, the Executive Director of ECPAT International, and
representatives of the Government of Japan and the Save the Children
Alliance for the NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of
the Child, participated in the opening of the Regional Consultation.
They delivered opening statements and joined in a special ceremony
for the lighting of candles whose flames symbolized regional commitment
and solidarity in the fight against the commercial sexual exploitation
The Gabfai Theatre Group, Community Theatre Project of
the National Council for Child and Youth Development, Thailand,
performed an excerpt of their play entitled “Looking for Heaven.”
The performance highlighted the role of children and youth in
raising awareness, through drama, of the problems of child sexual
exploitation and trafficking.
The Regional Consultation elected Ms Merceditas N. Gutierrez,
Under Secretary, Department of Justice, Government of the
Philippines as Chairperson, and elected, in absentia, Ms Angelina
Tuara, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Government
of the Cook Islands as Vice-Chairperson.
AND HIGHLIGHTS OF DELIBERATIONS
The programme for the Regional Consultation is contained
in Annex II.
The following presentations were made under the following
substantive agenda items:
Agenda item 4: From Stockholm to Yokohama: the
Stockholm Congress, the Yokohama Congress, and relevant UN Conventions.
by Mr Vitit Muntarbhorn, Professor, Faculty of Law, Chulalongkorn
University, Thailand (former General Rapporteur of the First World
Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, Stockholm,
1996) on “From the First World Congress against Commercial Sexual
Exploitation to the Second World Congress: A Track Record for
the East Asia and the Pacific Region?”; and Mr Takashi Ashiki,
Chief, International Conference Support Division, Ministry of
Foreign Affairs, Government of Japan, on “Second World Congress
against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (Yokohama,
Japan, 17-20 December 2001).
Agenda item 5: Lessons learned following Stockholm:
The Situation in East Asia and the Pacific.
report on update on the “State of implementation of the Stockholm
Agenda for Action in the East Asia and the Pacific region” by
Ms Muireann O Briain, Executive Director, ECPAT International,
and Ms Chitraporn Vanaspongse, Regional Officer, ECPAT International.
discussion on achievements by governments, chaired by Mr Gamini
Abeysekera, UNICEF, with presentations by:
Ms You Ay, State Secretary
for Women’s and Veteran’s Affairs, Government of Cambodia, on
“National Five Year Plan of Action against Commercial Sexual Exploitation”;
Mr Do Ngoc Le, Director for
International Relations, Viet Nam Committee for Protection and
Care of Children, on “Protection through legislation”;
Mr Saneh Chankrachang, Director
of Youth Policy and Planning Division, National Youth Bureau,
Thailand, on “Government and NGO cooperation”; and
Ms Lourdes Balanon, Assistant
Secretary for Policy, Programmes and Standards, Department of
Social Welfare and Development, Government of the Philippines,
on “A Multi-sectoral approach to recovery and reintegration.”
Agenda item 6: Obstacles and challenges to combating
commercial sexual exploitation of children: “Good practices.”
show on good practices by non-governmental organizations, chaired
by Ms Nanda Krairiksh, ESCAP, with presentations by:
Mr Phil Marshall, Project
Manager, UN Inter-Agency Project on Trafficking in Women and Children
in the Mekong Subregion, on key elements of a good practice”;
Ms Ampha Suwanrat, Director,
People Innovation and Education, Pan Pacific Hotel, Bangkok, on
the “Youth Career Development Project”;
Ms Anjanette T. Saguisag,
Attorney and Area Coordinator, ECPAT-Philippines-Cebu Office on
“Tinggog Sa Kabataan (radio programme for youth by youth”; and
Ms Christine Beddoe, Child
Wise Tourism Manager, ECPAT Australia, on “Child Wise Tourism:
Preventing the commercial sexual exploitation of children through
tourism industry training.”
The participants commended the high quality and usefulness
of the presentations, which stimulated a lively exchange of experiences
and comments. The main points from the exchange are summarized
The sex industry was lucrative.
The trafficking of women and children was recognized as an organized
crime at national and transnational levels in the region.
Traffickers had the resources to use new technology in their operations.
Poverty reduction was crucial to efforts to prevent
CSEC. Key elements to ensure better quality care for more
children to survive and develop included free education provision,
good legislation and reproductive health services. Nevertheless,
as was evident in Thailand’s experience, poverty and lack of education
were not the only factors in CSEC.
There was no single model
for national focal points for CSEC. An existing focal point (e.g.,
a ministry of social welfare or a national committee on child
rights) could be identified or a new one could be established.
Similarly, some countries
had specific action plans for CSEC, while others had general child
or youth development plans that contained CSEC provisions.
The main merits of specific CSEC plans for children, separate
from those for women, were that boys could be covered, there would
be no issue regarding consent, resources could be specifically
targeted, and monitoring could be more focused. All children
18 years and under had to be protected absolutely from child prostitution,
pornography and trafficking.
Complacency was a major challenge
that rendered current efforts harder than the situation five years
ago. It was necessary not just to improve access to education,
but also to strengthen socialization processes, build families,
empower communities and societies that would be more humane, and
more child- and gender-sensitive.
The importance of international
instruments to combat CSEC was emphasized. These included
the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child
on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography;
Convention on Transnational Organized Crime and its Optional Protocol;
and ILO Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour.
Employers’ organizations and
workers’ organizations, including those in the transport and service
sectors, had a useful support role to play in fighting sexual
exploitation among children. However, was the cooperation
among the diverse sectors, governments and organizations as strong
and as effective as the collaboration among sex industry operators?
Memorandums of Understanding
(MoUs) were a useful mechanism for expediting cooperation between
diverse groups and across national borders.
Prevention was of utmost importance,
especially as it was very difficult for sexually abused and exploited
children to recover and reintegrate. Further, many sexually
abused children were likely, in turn, to become adult abusers.
Greater efforts needed to
be focused on reducing the demand for sex with children.
That included fighting cultural tendencies towards male domination
and encouraging certain types of men to change their perceptions
of, and practices with, children as sex objects.
There was a need for improved
law enforcement, including training of personnel in social work
skills so that they could respond more sensitively to child victims.
Protection of children would require training for parents concerning
their responsibilities towards children. Communities also
needed training on how to better protect child victims.
Internet promotion of child
sex tourism was a serious issue. Governments faced great
difficulty in their control of the Internet. Software programmes
(e.g., “rsac” and “icra”) existed that filtered and blocked out
undesirable information. Such programmes were often pre-installed
in many new computers.
In some higher income societies,
a new phenomenon had emerged: teenagers who were not from impoverished
families, and who had not been trafficked from rural areas, but
who engaged in sex for remuneration. In that situation,
negative perceptions of children as “delinquents” should be avoided.
The special vulnerability of the children of minority
groups warranted more attention as the risk factors that such
groups faced (e.g., anomalous citizenship status) affected them
differently from the children of mainstream groups. Ethnic
minority children faced multiple forms of exploitation, abuse,
Young people and other participants
should encourage their respective governments to attend the Second
World Congress, to be hosted by the Government of Japan in Yokohama,
Japan from 17 to 20 December 2001. Governments should include
young people in their delegations to Yokohama.
The representative of the Government of China expressed
her Government’s appreciation of ECPAT’s contributions to addressing
the CSEC issue, and of the ECPAT presentation. It indicated
that it would strengthen its collaboration with ECPAT, ESCAP and
UNICEF on this issue, including through the sharing of information.
V. REGIONAL COMMITMENT
AND ACTION PLAN
Under agenda item 7, the Regional Consultation divided
into the following six working groups to formulate the Regional
Commitment and Action Plan.
Preamble and Commitment;
Recovery and reintegration;
The outcomes of the deliberations under agenda items 4,
5 and 6, as well as the discussions under agenda item 7, fed into
the formulation of the Regional Commitment and Action Plan, as
annexed to this report.
The following individuals represented the above working
groups in the Technical and Drafting Committee:
and Commitment Group
You Ay, Secretary of State, Ministry of Women’s and Veteran’s
Le Do Ngoc, Director, Department of International Relations,
Viet Nam Committee for Protection and Care of Children,
Sybil Nandi Msezane, Youth Coordinator, ECPAT International,
Lourdes Balanon, Assistant Secretary and Officer-in-Charge,
Office of the Undersecretary for Policy, Programmes and
Standards, Department of Social Welfare and Development,
David Feingold, Representative, UNESCO */
Kesanee Palanuwongse, Counsellor, Social Division, Department
of International Organizations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
and Reintegration Group
Xu Yu, Third Secretary, Department of Treaty and Law, Ministry
of Foreign Affairs, China
Hu Daohua, Official, National Working Committee on Women
and Children, Under the State Council, China
Li Nan, Assistant Permanent Representative to ESCAP, Embassy
of the People’s Republic of China, Bangkok
Sokunthea Peng, Youth participant, Children Rights Committee,
Michelle G. Ong, Research Assistant, Psychosocial Trauma
Programme, Center for Integrative and Development Studies,
University of the Philippines, Philippines
Vera O’Campo, Youth participant, ECPAT Philippines, Young
People Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children
Jane Tauarike Tuavera, Senior Sergeant, Cook Islands Police
Headquarters, Cook Islands
Elected by Group to provide technical support.
OPEN SPACE WORKSHOPS ON GOOD PRACTICES
Under agenda item 9, the following “open space” workshops on good
practices were held:
Role of tourism and the travel business in fighting
Actions to protect children from the dangers of
Preventive approaches to trafficking in the Mekong
Community-based child protection strategies;
Making protection a reality through legislation
and law enforcement;
Improving capacities for medical and psychosocial
Children as key partners.
ADOPTION OF THE REPORT
The Regional Consultation adopted its Report on 18 October
2001, including the Regional Commitment and Action Plan, as contained
in annex I of the Report.
On behalf of the delegates, Ms You Ay, Head of the Delegation
of the Government of Cambodia, commended the co-organizers on
the excellent organization of the Regional Consultation.
The Delegation of the Government of the Lao People’s Democratic
Republic presented the co-organizers with mementos of appreciation.
The Chairperson closed the Regional Consultation.