2013 Somalia: The Integrated Capacity Development for Somalia Education Administrations (ICDSEA), Final Evaluation Report
Author: Mary Muito
"With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. Please ensure that you check the quality of this evaluation report, whether it is “Outstanding, Best Practice”, “Highly Satisfactory”, “Mostly Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory” before using it. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 2’ of the report."
The Integrated Capacity Development for Somalia Education Administrations (ICDSEA) Programme was a three-year (2010-2013) multi-phased programme funded under the EU Education Sector Development Support Programme for Somalia (EDF10). It targeted institutional capacity development of the three Ministries of Education in three regions of Somalia - Somaliland, Puntland and South Central. The Programme was implemented through a collaborative partnership between UNICEF Somalia, the lead agency, the Africa Education Trust (AET), the Centre for British Teachers (CfBT), the Ministry of Education and Higher Education in Somaliland, the Ministry of Education , Puntland and the Education Directorate in the Ministry of Human Development and Public Service in South Central Somalia. The ICDSEA Programme was developed in line with the European Commission Joint Strategy Paper (2008-2013) that resulted from the report of the Joint Needs Assessment (JNA) for Somalia. The JNA laid emphasis on the need for development efforts to be focused more on state building by strengthening existing institutions and supporting the establishment of new ones, developing policy frameworks and strategic programmes, putting in place enabling legal and regulatory frameworks and building capacity to implement, monitor and adjust policy. ICDSEA was, therefore, a multi-phased programme which was part of the larger effort under the Somalia Special Support Programme (SSSP) focusing specifically on capacity development of the Ministries of Education in the three zones in the core areas of Policy; Planning; Finance; Human Resource Management; Quality Assurance; and Standards and Gender. ICDSEA sought to strengthen and expand the capacity of the Ministries of Education administrations at all levels to formulate evidence-based policies on the basis of relevant data, manage the Education Sector effectively and efficiently and deliver quality education services.
The main objectives of the final evaluation was to validate independently whether or not there was an increase in the capacity of MoEs in Somalia to plan for and deliver quality services for the Education Sector and whether systems that support the workings and operations of the ministries had changed positively.
Development of Study Protocol started with meetings with UNICEF Somalia in Nairobi to review logistics, identify stakeholders and assign responsibilities. Literature review was done to gain deeper understanding of the ICDSEA Programme from the project proposal documents and other policy and standard manuals and financial reports from the Ministries of Education. From the literature review, evaluation tools were developed which included guidelines to Key Informant Interviews, Focus Group Discussion and a structured questionnaire for beneficiaries of the Post Graduate Diploma in Education Management and Administration (PGDEMA) and the girls sponsored under the AFPE funding. The data collection phase included field visits and observations focusing on programme achievements in order to establish relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability of interventions with respect to programme objectives. Key Informant Interviews, Focus Group Discussions and short structured questionnaires were administered to the selected sample of beneficiaries and stakeholders who included Staff in the Ministries of Education, Finance, Labour, ICDSEA programme managers, beneficiaries of training and scholarship and Education Sector Committees members. Data analysis started at the field level with exit validation meetings at the of field work in each zone. An analysis framework was developed for analysing information from KIIs, FGDs and observation guidelines. Quantitative data from the short structured interviews and data collected from reports (primary school census, financial, progress reports) was analysed and reported in summaries, tables, charts and graphs. Ethical considerations were given priority and at every stage of the process, the evaluation team ensured that care was taken in dealing with respondents and respected the various socio-cultural contexts. No names were listed against recorded information deemed sensitive.
1. The Sector Wide Approach adopted in the ICDSEA capacity building strategy should be sustained and scaled up to the regions, districts and institutions for future programmes so that ministries can manage and deliver quality education from central level to school level.
2. The concept of embedding Somali Technical Experts in the MoE for knowledge and skills transfer was recommended for future capacity development for local staff as it provided on-the-job professional training and was a strategy with great potential to create a pool of local qualified staff. MoEs should be supported to retain the HR capacity developed under ICDSEA especially the EMIS staff, while further education and training to Master’s level should be encouraged for education officers and heads of departments.
3. The three political zones of Somalia are not homogeneous in terms of development levels and institutional capacities, a factor that should be considered at the design stage of interventions so that uniformity is not applied across the zones.
4. The ministries should also be supported to move to the next level of developing and issuing performance contracts for all staff to enable accountability for results.
5. The AFPE Programme should be synchronised with the school calendar year as opposed to a programme cycle. Such support should be aligned to completion of grade levels to avoid situations where support ends before completion of a course or academic cycle as was the case with the PGDEMA trainees and the girls under the AFPE Programme.
6. Support for gender mainstreaming should be sustained, as this is one way for Somalia to achieve equity and equality in education by bridging the gender gaps and disparities which are still widely prevalent in Somalia as per the 2011/2012 Primary School Censuses
1. Education delivery can best be achieved when local institutional capacity is well established and interventions are rooted on priorities identified by the primary beneficiaries and stakeholders.
2. Skills transfer through on-the-job and mentoring by experts are effective and efficient capacity building strategies.
3. Development assistance can positively effect change where partnerships are based on mutual respect, accountability and transparency
4. Education is a tool that can be used effectively to address biases and bridge political barriers.
5. Somalia is not one homogenous entity and requires differentiated interventions based on identified priorities suitable for local environments.
6. Addressing gender disparities in Somalia will require the use of multi-dimensional, multi- sectoral and community based approaches sustained over a long period of time.
Full report in PDF
PDF files require Acrobat Reader.