Author: YKAI (The Indonesian Child Welfare Foundation (ICWF)). Institution: YKAI (The Indonesian Child Welfare Foundation (ICWF)). Partners: Ministry of National Education, Frontiers for Health, Local Government and ECD local stakeholders
“With the aim to continuously improve transparency and use of evaluation, UNICEF Evaluation Office manages the "Global Evaluation Reports Oversight System". Within this system, an external independent company reviews and rates all evaluation reports. Please ensure that you check the quality of this evaluation report, whether it is “Outstanding”, “Good”, “Almost Satisfactory” or “Unsatisfactory” before using it. You will find the link to the quality rating below, labelled as ‘Part 2’ of the report.”
UNICEF Indonesia has developed the ECD model called “Taman Posyandu (TP)” since 2006 in some provinces. Taman Posyandu has been developed from Posyandu which was established in the community, to provide health and nutritional care and immunization for pregnant mothers, infants and young children. Now, Taman Posyandu integrated Posyandu services with pre-school children’s psycho-social and cognitive development and education. Unicef has collaborated with Ministry of National Education (MoNE). This collaboration is aimed also to create a Policy Guideline for comprehensive ECD approaches.
In 2007, UNICEF Indonesia is facing three major challenges in the ECD program, which include; 1) Completion of Policy Guideline at central level, 2) Consolidation of the existing ECD services for improving quality of the overall model, and 3) Institutionalization of ECD program in the government and development of exit strategies of UNICEF supports.
In line with decentralization, UNICEF supports are expected to gradually roll out in near future in some districts and to prepare the Institutionalization of the ECD program and development of UNICEF exit strategy, UNICEF need to have an assessment of Taman Posyandu and The Indonesian Child Welfare Foundation (ICWF)/Yayasan Kesejahteraan Anak Indonesia (YKAI) is the executor of this assessment.
To assess the QUALITY SERVICES provided in UNICEF supported ECD centers and the CAPACITY OF INDONESIAN GOVERNMENT to expand and sustain the ECD model.
Specific objective: to assess the appropriateness of support capacity, quality of services, participation and affordability and local capacity and sustainability of Taman Posyandu.
1) Desk Review
a. Elaboration of evaluation design at community and district level.
b. Elaboration of evaluation matrix
c. Key documents review (country program, annual reports, ECD project donor reports, etc)
d. Identification of data collection methods (qualitative and quantitative data, focus group discussion, in depth interview, etc)
e. Elaboration of instruments for evaluation (checklist, questionnaire, interview methods, etc)
2) Initial discussion on evaluation design with UNICEF staff
f. Meeting with UNICEF staff on evaluation design, evaluation matrix, data collection methods, and instruments
g. Revising evaluation design and instruments based on recommendations of UNICEF staff (to make sure that all the issues reflected in the scope are covered).
h. Prepare modified evaluation design, evaluation matrix and instruments
3) Interview to key stakeholders at national level
i. Interview to UNICEF management staff in education section
j. Interview to staff of Directorate of Early Education in MoNE
k. Interview to other relevant stakeholders (F2H and others)
4) Preparation on field work
l. Training of interviewees
m. Scheduling of field visit and coordination with field staff
5) Field work
n. Observation of ECD service provide in ECD centers
o. In-depth interview on cadres, master trainers, community leaders, district government staff and others.
p. Focus group discussion on relevant stakeholders at community and district level
q. Application of elaborated tools (checklist, questionnaire, and others)
r. Interview and meeting with key political stakeholders at district level
6) Data processing and analysis
s. Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data
t. Prepare recommendations for the government and UNICEF
7) Presentation of results and feedbacks from stakeholders
u. Workshop on presentation of the results and findings
v. Prepare first draft of evaluation report
w. Receiving feedback from national stakeholders
8) Presentation of final report
x. Prepare final report of the evaluation
Findings and Conclusions:
Appropriateness of Support Capacity:
In general, Taman Posyandu is based on local wisdom. They use local language in deliver the teaching materials in class, beside Indonesia (national) language. Educational Toys was developed from local materials, introduce local songs. Few Taman Posyandu did not use did not develop local sources or materials.
This is important, because by using local language, songs and toys, parents and children can understand the content easier and well understood. This can increase sense of belonging of community towards Taman Posyandu.
In general, training module was modified or adjusted to cadres’ educational background and local context. Most of cadres graduated from elementary school. So, by using simple language, giving more pictures, cadres can easily understand the materials. Cadres also given to bring home, they are given the manual book to be used in their daily activities. However, since there are many materials, cadre could not understand all of the materials. Advance training to refresh knowledge and increase the capacity of cadre is very effective, since Cadres felt more confidence in delivering the materials and in doing their jobs.
Taman Posyandu already implement the holistic services for children age 0 – 6 years old, which include learning and playing, health and nutrition services and parent education, although the latter did not routine activity. Parents are aware of the importance of child development. Although it is not maximal yet, parents tried to practice and implement child development materials which were given in Taman Posyandu. According to Elementary School Teachers and other community, children who graduated from Taman Posyandu perform well, even outstanding compare to other children in Elementary School, the readiness to enter school and to study in the Elementary School proved.
After 2 years, advocacy to the local government runs well, especially in the village and district level. The result is funding support, facility, and the establishment of structure to manage Taman Posyandu which includes preparation, implementation and monitoring of Taman Posyandu.
Socialization to community leader and other community succeed, because it can encourage community participation, from the direct involvement in Taman Posyandu activity, or other kind of contributions.
Numbers of children reached by Taman Posyandu increased, although in 2 villages, the numbers decreased. But, this is because of low birth rate as the positive impact family planning program.
QUALITY OF SERVICES
The service in Taman Posyandu uses minimum standard of service as introduce in UNICEF Training Module. For example, in class, children and also teaching materials were categorized by age group and using fun learning approach. For health and nutrition activity, the standard uses Posyandu standard, which includes growth and development monitoring and immunization. While Parental Education, using the”9 messages”.
Training of cadres, although conducted in 2 – 3 days, considered sufficient for cadres to do the job, because there was internship as part of the training. Advance training with local trainers who know the local situation and condition was better. Since cadres are oblige to make daily, weekly and monthly planning, automatically Cadres can implement the knowledge and skills they obtained in the training. Management skills were implemented by setting up the organizational chart of Taman Posyandu and job description among cadres.
Transparency of fund can be seen from the annual meeting which was attended by parents and community. One of the meeting agendas was financial report.
Supervision of Taman Posyandu was done by technical team of the district, although it was varied in the districts and some was not routine.
Problem to find appropriate facility makes need to be solved, because some of facility was very bad, such as no appropriate toilet, beside no permanent place if the activity of Taman Posyandu done almost everyday.
PARTICIPATION AND COMMUNITY CAPABILITY IN TAMAN POSYANDU SERVICES
Family and community highly appreciated Taman Posyandu, this can be seen from the active participation of the children in Taman Posyandu. Parents realized the positive changes on their children in terms of cognitive and social behavior. Although it is not routine and informal, advocacy and communication forum of parents in Taman Posyandu can increase parents’ awareness and community member to bring the children to Taman Posyandu. Community participation can be in the form of paying tuition fee and other contributions to support Taman Posyandu. The amount of the tuition decided by community through discussion process, even if the amount was not big. The important things for them were togetherness and the traditions, which everything need to be discussed first and decide together. Sense of belonging and support from village and community on Taman Posyandu was high.
The building for Taman Posyandu, mostly belongs to the village and no charge. No rejection from the community was the form of minimum support from community.
Fundraising among community to support Taman Posyandu, although not many, has been done. The amount was varied. In one place they decide the fix amount, but in other places, not.
Village government has allocated budget from ADD (Village fund Allocation) to support the operational cost of Taman Posyandu, although the amount is not enough for operational cost.
LOCAL CAPACITY TO INCREASE AND TO SUPPORT TAMAN POSYANDU MODEL
Nowadays, local government has good awareness to support the policy development and budget allocation for Taman Posyandu in the era of decentralization, where districts have the independency in budget allocation.
Technical and management capacity in Taman Posyandu increased, because of the coordination meetings and establishment of organization.
Other conditions that benefit Taman Posyandu to develop in the future, among others:
1. Taman Posyandu as an integrative and comprehensive program will not end, although there is The existing of the new Education Law, specifically mentions about Early Childhood Education.
2. Central government (Bappenas (National Planning Board) and MoNE committed to prioritize Early Childhood Education.
3. More over, in total national budget (APBN), the budget of education increased up to 20% in 2008, although Early Childhood not the first priority of education, but in top 10 priority. (Mr. Sukiman – MoNE), so the Early Childhood Education Movement are increasing.
4. Many programs from Indonesian government are the conducive to the growing of Taman Posyandu, and the fund can be obtained from many sources, such as: Program Keluarga Harapan, Jamkesmas, PNPM Mandiri.
1. Relevancy: Taman Posyandu service is relevant to community needs, because it was developed from bottom up. This can increase sense of belonging of community. The use of local wisdom made people understand more and hopefully they will continue the activity with their own resources.
2. Efficiency: This program is efficient since it can encourage many people to involve in this program with limited budget.
3. Effectiveness: Effectiveness can be seen in the form of training. By training some Posyandu Cadres and local trainers, those people can train parents on child development.
4. Impact: Many positive impact as mention above happened in children ability, awareness of parents, the skills of cadre. Even, some cadres are encouraged to continue their education, because they think that they are the role model in the village, so they should learn more and more in order to educate the community, beside the increase of their welfare, or salary if they have more education.
5. Sustainability: with present condition, such as regulation, pro poor government programs and commitment of local government and UNICEF guidance in Taman Posyandu so far, sustainability can be achieved. If the best practices of UNICEF Taman Posyandu program will be replicate by some district, monitoring and guidance is still needed. In a nut shell, the exit strategy needs to be prepared thoroughly, especially in terms of advocacy from UNICEF to central and local government so that all sectors really involve in supporting Taman Posyandu.
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