2011 Tanzania: Evaluation of UNICEF's Early Childhood Development Programme with Focus on Government of Netherlands Funding (2008-2010) - Tanzania Country Case Study Report
Through an intersectoral approach spanning several years, the United Republic of Tanzania has developed its Integrated Early Childhood Development (IECD) policy, which was expected to be approved in final form before the end of 2010. Adoption of this policy sets the stage for scaling up Early Childhood Development (ECD) activities that have been piloted, in collaboration with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), in selected districts. Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world; 89 percent of the population lives on less than 1.25 (US$) a day, and poverty is heavily concentrated in rural areas. Despite recent improvements in child health, Tanzania has high rates of maternal, neonatal, and infant mortality. Malnutrition is also prevalent among children younger than 5. The high prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) also creates significant hardships for young children. Orphans, children living in households headed by other children or elderly adults, disabled children, and street children are considered especially vulnerable.
UNICEF’S ECD Focus in Tanzania
The UNICEF Tanzania CO intersectoral ECD team works in partnership with the ECD focal persons in the Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children (MoCDGC); Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT); and Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW); and with the Tanzania Early Childhood Development Network (TECDEN) to advocate for and provide technical support in the development of policies and plans for ECD services. The Country Programme Action Plan (CPAP), a broad contract between UNICEF and the government of Tanzania, lays out a number of approaches or activities to be carried out under the Nutrition and Early Child Development subcomponent, including but not limited to the following:
Strengthening national, district, and community capacity for delivery of integrated health, nutrition, and ECD interventions
Harmonizing sectoral and early childhood policies with broader child and gender policies
Strengthening national-, district-, and community-level data and monitoring systems
Carrying out formative research to understand the status of young children who are among the most vulnerable, and advocating for the special protection needs of them
Ensuring year-by-year disaggregation of data for children younger than 5 in all data systems
Advocating for the inclusion of ECD in the Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP II)
Monitoring of the Education for All goal of increasing developmental readiness of children
Supporting development of integrated ECD service delivery models in LDs
These activities are expected to produce the following outputs:
IECD operational guidelines and minimum standards and draft curricula
Framework and ECD curriculum and integrated community models implemented in selected wards in the LDs by the end of 2010
At least 30 percent of children younger than 3 have access to community-based ECD services, defined as one of the following:2
- Receipt of at least one CORPs visit in the previous three months
- Attendance at a day care center
- Caregiver has knowledge of ECD
- Caregiver has an ECD card3
- Village has two CORPs who are trained to orient caregivers of children younger than 3 on ECD
In accordance with CPAP, Tanzania’s ECD focus is on development and implementation of an IECD policy and implementation of services and initiatives, including home-based care for children under age 3, day care centers for 3- and 4-year-olds, and preprimary school for children ages 5 and 6.
This report presents the results of a case study of ECD activities in Tanzania. The evaluation team conducted the study as part of an evaluation of the UNICEF–Government of Netherlands (GoN) Cooperation Programme on ECD, 2008–2010. The Cooperation Programme on ECD emphasizes three strategic objectives: (1) capacity building, (2) knowledge generation and dissemination, and (3) mainstreaming ECD into policies and programmes for young children. In addition, the Cooperation Programme on ECD focuses on cross-cutting issues, such as use of a human rights-based approach to planning and providing ECD services as well as gender equity and reaching the marginalized. The case study analyzes ECD in Tanzania by focusing on the core set of UNICEF, government, and partner activities prioritized for investment of the GoN funds and completed as of September 2010, the end of the study period. Where possible, the report presents findings on other activities related to the core set, but the case study was designed to use the GoN investment as a lens for analyzing ECD in Tanzania. Throughout, the report provides findings and conclusions about the role of the GoN funding in strengthening and catalyzing new and ongoing ECD activities. For the Tanzania case study, in August 2010 the evaluation team conducted nine days of in-country data collection, including field visits to locations identified by UNICEF country office (CO) staff where the core set of ECD activities that received support from the GoN funding is implemented in seven learning districts (LDs).1 Primary data sources included (1) interviews with members of the UNICEF CO staff, representatives of national ministries and district offices involved in providing services related to ECD, staff from key partner organizations, preprimary teachers, and day care providers; (2) observations of two preprimary schools and three day care classrooms; (3) three focus groups with parents of children enrolled in preprimary schools and day care centers and one focus group with parents of children who were not enrolled; (4) one focus group with Community-Owned Resource Persons (CORPs), community volunteers who provide Community-Based Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (c-IMCI) visits to families with children younger than 3; and (5) one focus group with parents and caregivers who had been visited by CORPs and some who had not. In addition to these primary data sources, the case study team reviewed a range of secondary sources, including reports and draft policy documents, data from surveys, and results of external studies.
The evaluation team employed two main qualitative methods in analyzing case study data: (1) thematic framing and (2) triangulation. The case study team used a logical framework for ECD in Tanzania (Appendix A) and a case study matrix specifying questions, outcomes, and indicators (Appendix B) to establish a structure for thematic analysis. Triangulation confirmed patterns and identified important discrepancies across data sources and respondents participating in interviews and focus groups.
The report presents case study findings in nine areas. We summarize these findings below.
Alignment with National Goals and Priorities
ECD activities under the United Republic of Tanzania and UNICEF programme of cooperation are generally aligned with priorities of the Government of Tanzania as expressed in its draft IECD policy document. As envisioned in the draft IECD policy document, Tanzania, in partnership with UNICEF, has developed services for children from conception to age 8, programme standards and monitoring systems, and intersectoral training programmes at national and subnational levels. Moreover, draft goals included the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP, or MKUKUTA II by its Swahili name) call for 100 percent net enrollment in preprimary schools by 2015.
ECD activities in the seven LDs demonstrate the Tanzanian government’s intention to promote holistic, intersectoral approaches; ECD activities outside the seven LDs are funded and implemented primarily by foundations and civil society organizations. Tanzania’s draft IECD policy mission statement emphasizes the need for ―integrated and multisectoral approaches to early childhood development services countrywide.‖ A well-structured system to promote national-level intersectoral collaboration, especially among MoCDGC; MoEVT; MoHSW; Prime Minister’s Office of Regional Administration and Local Governments (PMORALG); and TECDEN is in place. District-level intersectoral committees to manage and oversee ECD activities have been established in seven LDs and can serve as an important model for broader implementation of the draft IECD policy when it is finalized. In addition to the UNICEF-supported intersectoral approaches to ECD in the seven LDs, other ECD activities are funded and implemented through other foundation and civil society partners such as the Bernard Van Leer Foundation, KIWAKKUKI, KINNAPA, Plan International, Oxfam, World Vision, Save the Children, Aga Khan Foundation, Kiwakuku, Tanzania Home Economic Association, SAWA, TCDDC, and the Folk Development Committee.
Effectiveness: Increasing Access and Coverage
In partnership with UNICEF, Tanzania has expanded availability of holistic ECD services in the seven LDs, including services for families with children younger than 3 through c-IMCI as the entry point. ECD, and in particular a focus on early stimulation, has been integrated into c-IMCI by CORPs who received additional ECD training. The seven LDs provide c-IMCI home visits with ECD messages for families with children from conception to age 3, community-based day care for children ages 3 and 4, and preprimary education for children ages 5 and 6. The extent of ECD activities in the seven LDs, however, cannot be verified because district-level data are not available on the number of CORPs available to provide parent training or availability of spaces in day care centers and preprimary schools for all families who want them.
Due to integration of ECD into national policies, there have also been some increases in coverage of preprimary education beyond the seven LDs. Net enrollment ratios (NERs) in preprimary school increased from 24.6 percent in 2004 to 36.2 percent in 2008, but declined to 24.4 in 2009. This increase in net enrollment from 2004 to 2008 could be attributable to expansion of preprimary education as a result of the PEDP II policy.4
Effectiveness: Building Capacity for ECD
Decision makers at national and district levels reported increased ability to implement and support ECD. With support from UNICEF, ECD focal persons in national ministries attended the Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) and professional conferences. Participants reported feeling more confident and capable of leading ECD policy and programme discussions as a result of these experiences. District-level intersectoral teams in the seven LDs also reported an increased ability to support and oversee ECD activities as a result of ECD Resource Pack training.
Preprimary teachers observed during field visits demonstrated sound ECD practices. During field visits to two preprimary schools, teachers appeared well prepared, skilled in classroom management, and adept at engaging students. Caregivers also made excellent use of locally available learning and teaching materials and had involved parents in making these materials.
Infrastructure observed in some of the day care centers was generally poor, did not follow the national operational guidelines, and did not meet minimum standards for integrated ECD. The evaluation team visited three day care centers.5 In the two centers that were not attached to a preprimary school, infrastructure was poor and national quality standards—for caregiver–child ratios, ventilation, and safety—were not met. For example, one of the day care centers the case study team visited in Makete was crowded and located very close to a busy road, making it a safety hazard for children. In Temeke district, the team visited a very crowded day care center with 50 children, one trained teacher, and one caregiver. The day care center consisted of one poorly ventilated room. This is consistent with UNICEF’s finding that in 2008 more than 80 percent of day care centers were in poor condition. (UNICEF 2010b).
Home-based care providers and parents reported increased knowledge and improved practices as a result of ECD activities in the seven LDs. During field visit interviews, parents and CORPs displayed a high level of awareness of ECD, especially regarding early stimulation. Both parents and non-parental caregivers reported changes in practices after receiving ECD training; children were observed playing with learning materials they had made with their parents.
Effectiveness: Generating Knowledge for ECD
Several studies related to ECD have been completed with support from UNICEF that are currently informing ECD in Tanzania. The situational analysis and stakeholder consultations carried out in 24 districts greatly informed the development of the draft IECD policy. Moreover, documentation of how ECD was integrated into c-IMCI in Kibaha district was used to replicate this integration in the other six LDs.
Some guidance for budgeting costs for ECD has been developed and there are plans for dissemination and use. With support from UNICEF, an ECD cost and financing study has been drafted and was expected to be released in late 2010. It contains information about fixed and recurrent costs under various scenarios for achieving increased coverage of home visiting services for children from conception to age 3, community-based day care centers for children ages 3 and 4, and preprimary education for children ages 5 and 6. According to the UNICEF CO, this study has been used to develop a concept note for the World Bank funding to support scaling up of the three costed scenarios. It will also be used as an ―investment case‖ for advocacy during a national forum on investment in ECD.
There are insufficient national- and subnational-level data to inform ECD policies and programmes. Despite the important contributions of new studies, adequate ECD data are not available at national and subnational levels to guide policy and programme decisions about ECD. For example, Basic Education Statistics Tanzania (BEST) data provide NERs for preprimary education, but do not break the figures out for specific populations such as orphans, children with disabilities, and other vulnerable populations. There are no national data on the number of day care centers that exist, rates of day care center enrollment, or the number of CORPs that are providing ECD and early stimulation information to parents through c-IMCI.
There is little evidence on the effectiveness of ECD services in Tanzania to guide resource allocation decisions. Although Tanzania, in partnership with UNICEF, has completed several important studies of best practices and descriptive studies to document the need for ECD services, studies have not been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of ECD being implemented in the seven LDs. Some of the ECD activities in the seven LDs has been launched very recently; thus, it might be early to conduct an effectiveness evaluation. More research on the feasibility of implementation might be useful to ensure services can be well implemented before conducting an effectiveness study. According to UNICEF, an evaluation of ECD activities in the seven LDs is planned and a baseline study has been completed.
Effectiveness: Mainstreaming ECD in National Policies and Services
Detailed plans for mainstreaming ECD beyond the seven LDs have not yet been developed. At the time the site visit was conducted, the IECD policy was in draft form and was expected to be adopted late in 2010. As a result, funding mechanisms had not yet been established at national levels to undertake broader implementation of ECD activities beyond the seven LDs. Tanzania and its partners also face challenges in assessing national resource allocations for ECD, donor interest in funding ECD, and the capacity of key institutions to provide national leadership in ECD.
Capitation grants for preprimary students are not consistently provided, indicating that local district planners are facing challenges planning and budgeting for ECD. Although MoEVT at the national level has begun allocating funds for preprimary students under PEDP II, during a field visit to a preprimary school a head teacher reported that the school did not receive capitation grants for preprimary students. The school has received these funds only for primary students. Primary school head teachers reported that many preprimary students are not properly registered with the school and schools do not include preprimary students in their reports to the government. Because grants are paid on the basis of the number of students reported, grants have not been received for all preprimary students who attend. A further problem is that preprimary classes are managed by committees that are separate from the rest of the primary grade management and head teachers prioritize the other grades.
Efficiency and Quality of ECD Services
Through UNICEF support, operational guidelines and minimum standards for ECD service delivery have been developed. Operational guidelines and minimum standards for ECD service providers exist and are in use in the seven LDs even though they have not yet received final approval by the national government.
Minimal information is available about the efficiency and quality of services. Although guidelines and standards exist and are in use, adherence to them is not yet required by government policy. Systems are not yet in place for consistent monitoring and tracking of efficiency and quality indicators in the seven LDs.
Processes for ECD Planning, Management, and Coordination
Results-based planning for ECD is limited in Tanzania; data are not consistently collected and used for planning and managing ECD services. Systematic monitoring and data collection to track progress and promote continuous improvement of ECD is limited. Accessible data on service coverage are not available. Regular monitoring of home-based programmes, day care centers, and preprimary schools at the district level is minimal, and monitoring results are not systematically tracked and used for planning. Plans for monitoring CPAP outputs and outcomes in the seven LDs include a baseline and follow-up survey and monitoring visits by UNICEF CO staff. These monitoring visits, conducted four times per year, have a broader focus rather than on ECD activities specifically. In-depth monitoring, such as monitoring visits to specific centers and schools, is not conducted.
The current Republic of Tanzania–UNICEF CPAP does not include specific, measurable targets for the ECD activities in the seven LDs. UNICEF’s expected outputs for ECD include developing community models for ECD and increasing access to community-based ECD services for children younger than 3 in the seven LDs to 30 percent by 2010. More specific enrollment targets for each of the three main ECD programmes (home visits to promote early stimulation, day care centers, and preprimary schools) are needed.
Incorporation of a Human Rights-Based Approach and Strategies to Improve Gender Equity and Participation of the Disadvantaged and Marginalized
Development of ECD policy and services have emphasized participation of parents, ECD service providers, and other local stakeholders. District-level intersectoral ECD committees in the seven LDs emphasize local-level coordination and bring local stakeholders together to oversee ECD activities. Parents and community members are involved in school committees for preprimary schools and day care centers. Approaches that employ local volunteers, such as the CORPs who deliver c-IMCI home visits, increase the likelihood that local contexts will be taken into account in service provision.
Women are well represented in policymaking positions related to ECD due to Tanzanian government policy. Consistent with UNICEF’s focus on incorporating strategies to improve gender equity, during field visit interviews at national and district levels, the case study team noted that women were well represented in leadership roles. This could be because of the Women and Gender Development Policy (2000) under MoCDGC. The policy has the overall objective to promote gender equality and equal participation of men and women in economic, cultural, and political affairs. It also focuses on equal opportunities for men and women in terms of access to education, child care, employment, and decision making.
Boys and girls appear to be served in equal numbers, based on reviews of national data and case study class observations. The BEST data indicate that approximately equal proportions of girls and boys are enrolled in preprimary schools. Based on case study classroom observations during visits to day care centers and preprimary schools, it appeared that there were roughly equal numbers of girls and boys in attendance.
There is little evidence that MVCs or other disadvantaged groups are being reached with ECD services in the LDs or elsewhere. The draft IECD policy includes a brief section on serving vulnerable children; it specifies that the government, in collaboration with other stakeholders, should encourage communities to take responsibility for vulnerable children, should establish programs for reaching vulnerable children with services, and should ensure that laws aimed at protecting children are enforced. In Tanzania, especially vulnerable children are orphans, children living in households headed by other children or elderly adults, children with disabilities, and street children. However, no specific strategies have been elaborated by Tanzania for reaching vulnerable children with ECD services, including home-based care, day care, or preprimary education. According to UNICEF staff, orphans are supported at home and in day care centers, but including children with disabilities is a challenge due to lack of trained staff and appropriate facilities.
The national programme of support for MVCs might not be reaching the youngest children in need. The National Costed Plan of Action for MVC identifies certain groups of children as especially vulnerable; it aims to provide essential support services to these children through a community-based programme in which community MVC committees identify vulnerable children and allocate programme resources to provide supports such as school fees, uniforms, supplies, and possibly food support, health and legal referrals, and assistance with housing and other supports. However, those interviewed during the case study visit reported that very few children younger than 5 are identified and supported under the MVC programme. According to UNICEF, ―In the actual identification process, more boys than girls are identified as MVC and very few children below school age are identified as MVC‖ (UNICEF 2010b). This represents a critical gap in the MVC programme, which is currently the only concerted effort (and funding stream) to reach the most disadvantaged children with services designed to protect their rights and improve outcomes related to their health, education, and security.
Sustainability and Scale-Up of ECD Services and Initiatives6
Sustainability of the ECD focus in c-IMCI home visits requires that there be a sufficient number of CORPs per village that have received training on early stimulation and they must be retained in their positions. The number of CORPs per village is fairly low (for example, two CORPs per village), making it challenging for CORPs to provide services to all eligible children and families. Although data on attrition rates of CORPs are not available, some evidence suggests that attrition could be an issue. UNICEF and country counterparts expressed concern about the potential effect of turnover of CORPs and its effect on the quality and consistency of the ECD messages provided as part of c-IMCI.
The current day care center funding approach hinders sustainability and enrollment of vulnerable children who need the services most. Day care centers are supported by the community through community funds, in-kind parent contributions, and contributions from community elders or private businesses and charitable organizations. Teachers do not receive a government salary; they are supported by parent contributions. In wealthier communities, parent fees are viewed as sufficient but in poorer areas this is not the case. Under this funding approach, however, there is little incentive for well-qualified day care providers to work in poorer communities where parents cannot afford to contribute to teachers’ salaries.
Tanzania currently has only partial plans for scaling up services beyond the seven LDs. At sectoral levels there are some plans in development for national scale-up. For example, the draft goals of MKUKUTA II called for 100 percent net enrollment in preprimary school by 2015. It is not clear, however, if funds are available yet to implement the plans. The case study team did not find evidence of scale-up plans in ECD-related documents prepared by UNICEF or the government of Tanzania. Site visit respondents also did not have knowledge of specific scale-up plans. According to UNICEF staff, Tanzania was waiting for the draft IECD policy to be finalized to develop scale-up plans for ECD. After approval of the policy, the government will develop a national plan of action that outlines how the new policy will be operationalized and phased plans to take selected ECD interventions to scale. It also should be noted that at sectoral levels there are some national plans, such as for universal access to preprimary classrooms, but funds are not yet available to implement the plans.
Several important steps have been taken to lay the groundwork for scaling up ECD beyond these districts, but gaps in information about effectiveness hinder evidence-based decision making. Through its partnership with UNICEF, Tanzania has trained leaders and key government officials on ECD, developed programme guidelines and standards, implemented ECD services in the seven LDs, and produced a cost and financing study to guide future scale-up efforts. Little, however, is known about the effectiveness of the activities implemented in the seven LDs, which leaves policymakers and programme managers with little information about where to invest scarce resources.
1 UNICEF support for ECD at the subnational level in Tanzania is concentrated in seven learning districts in six regions on the mainland: Bagamoyo (Pwani), Temeke (Dar es Salaam), Hai and Siha (Kilimanjaro), Magu (Mwanza), Makete (Iringa), and Mtwara Rural (Mtwara), which are referred to as LDs. These districts were selected in collaboration with the government based on existing priorities in 2006. The objective of focusing UNICEF support for ECD in these districts was to assess the feasibility of implementing the ECD programming for young children developed at the national level and use lessons learned from these experiences to inform policymakers about the viability of policies and system improvements. There are 130 districts in Tanzania (120 mainland and 10 in Zanzibar).
2 These indicators were created as part of a baseline study in the seven LDs to define access to ECD services. These indicators are being collected in baseline and follow-up surveys only, not on an annual or more frequent basis.
3 According to the model of integrating ECD into c-IMCI, during CORPs home visits, CORPs give parents and other caregivers specially designed cards with pictures, guidance, and information they can use to monitor their child’s developmental milestones. The content of the cards was developed based on the ECD Resource Pack child development module.
4 The source for these data is the report entitled ―Cost and Financing Scenarios to Support Implementation of the Integrated Early Childhood Development Policy of Tanzania‖ (UNICEF 2010b). The author notes the decline in NER from 36.2 in 2008 to 24.4 in 2009 but does not provide an explanation. In regard to this drop, the report states, ―Of course one wonders if this is not an error, but the same figure of 24.4 is found in the recent Joint Education Sector Review of October 2009…so we must assume the figure has been checked."
5 In Makete district, the case study team visited one day care center attached to the preprimary and primary school with 11 children and two volunteer caregivers. Another day care center that the team visited in Makete district was a standalone center run by the community and had 30 children (16 boys and 14 girls with two volunteer caregivers. In Temeke district the case study team visited a day care center with 50 children (28 boys and 22 girls) with one trained teacher and one caregiver.
6 As defined by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development: Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC) (2002) evaluation criteria, ―Sustainability is concerned with measuring whether the benefits of an activity are likely to be continue after donor funding has been withdrawn.‖ This case study assesses sustainability at the service delivery and broader systems levels.
This section presents conclusions about progress that has been made and ongoing challenges faced by Tanzania and its partners as they continue to develop ECD policy, support implementation, and plan for scale-up.
Alignment with National Goals and Priorities
Tanzania has made substantial progress toward completion of an intersectoral IECD policy.
Increasing Access and Coverage
Plans for increasing coverage have not been fully developed.
Several important steps have been taken to lay the groundwork for scaling up ECD beyond the seven LDs, but gaps in information about effectiveness hinder evidence-based decision making.
Capacity Building for ECD
Capacity for developing ECD policy and implementing services has increased at all levels.
Knowledge Generation for ECD
Some progress has been made toward building an evidence base to inform ECD policy and services in Tanzania, but gaps in knowledge generation and management at all levels impede results-based planning.
Mainstreaming of ECD into National Policies and Plans
Integration of ECD into c-IMCI provides a good example of a successful intersectoral approach.
Current funding approaches are insufficient for mainstreaming ECD services.
Efficiency and Quality of ECD
National ECD guidelines and standards for service delivery can facilitate consistent implementation and continuous quality improvement as ECD is scaled up, but better monitoring is needed.
Processes for Planning, Management, and Coordination
Tanzania has developed a model for intersectoral collaboration at the national and subnational levels.
Incorporation of a Human Rights-Based Approach and Strategies to Improve Equity
Current ECD policy and programme approaches lack mechanisms for identifying and providing ECD services to the most vulnerable groups of children.
Factors Affecting Sustainability and Scale-Up
Tanzania has begun laying the groundwork for developing scale-up plans, but planning for scale-up is not yet underway.
Role of the UNICEF-GoN Funding
The UNICEF-GoN Cooperation Programme provided important support for capacity building and policy development at the national level as well as intensive capacity building and support for implementing strategic ECD activities at the district level.
The evaluation team offers the following recommendations to enhance ECD policy development and implementation in Tanzania. The team presents separate recommendations for the Government of Tanzania, focused on intersectoral collaboration and implementation, and for UNICEF, which focus on advocacy and provision of technical support. [See page xvii for the full Recommendations table].
Lessons Learned (optional):
At the time of the August 2010 site visit, Tanzania was at a relatively early stage in the development and implementation of ECD policy and programme implementation. Development of the IECD policy document was underway but had not yet been completed. Implementation of ECD activities was focused primarily in the seven LDs. Nevertheless, Tanzania’s experience thus far at both the national and subnational levels provides several important lessons learned that might be useful for other countries, particularly on the topic of intersectoral collaboration.
Early investment in intersectoral training at the national level can foster the development of ECD expertise and strong relationships across sectors. At the national level, Tanzania has a well-structured ECD policy development process in which focal persons from multiple ministries and partner organizations participate in a steering committee chaired by MoCDGC. With support from UNICEF, these individuals participated together in ECDVU for one year. During site visit interviews, participants reported that this experience helped the group to create shared expertise in ECD, a common understanding of the importance of ECD, and strong working relationships across sectors.
Intersectoral policy development and planning fosters integrated, holistic services rather than implementation only in one isolated sector and takes a holistic approach to meeting young children’s needs. Tanzania’s intersectoral approach to ECD policy development has fostered an integrated, holistic approach across health, education, and social welfare, rather than a more limited focus in a single area. Moreover, in the seven LDs, multiple service delivery strategies have been implemented across sectors simultaneously and are overseen by an integrated district-level committee.
An intersectoral approach to policy development and programme implementation promotes the development of interventions for parents and children across the ECD age span (conception to age 8). Another benefit of Tanzania’s intersectoral ECD approach has been the implementation of services across the age span. Rather than focusing on one age group—preschoolers, for example—Tanzania has developed home-based services for parents and children up to age 3, day care services for children ages 3–5, and preprimary classrooms for children ages 5 and older.
Because donor groups are organized by sector, an intersectoral approach to ECD creates challenges for efficient interactions with funders. Tanzania receives support from a set of donor groups that is organized by sector. Because Tanzania has taken an intersectoral approach to ECD, it is difficult to engage donor groups, each of which focuses on a specific sector, in funding intersectoral ECD. There is no single lead ministry to connect with a particular donor group and advocate for ECD funding. Addressing this mismatch between the intersectoral country approach and the sectoral donor approach will be critical for engaging donors in funding the services needed to mainstream ECD beyond the seven LDs. The UNICEF–GoN programme was a first step in this type of funding that could serve as a model for donor funding strategies focused on intersectoral collaboration and mainstreaming.
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