Author: Acacia Consultants Ltd.; UNICEF
A drought situation had occurred across the country following poor performance of the 2003 short rains and 2004 long rains resulting in food and water shortages in 26 districts. Assessments by UNICEF and other stakeholders such as the Kenya Food Security Meeting (KFSM) found that: Malnutrition rates were on the increase, most districts did not have sufficient referral mechanisms, measles and other disease outbreaks were potential risks, water borne diseases were a potential problem as humans and animals competed for and settled around water sources and feeding points, there was also an increased risk of STI transmission and HIV transmission in the displaced populations, the severity of water shortages could result in life-threatening crises due to inadequate drinking water, poor water quality and poor hygiene and sanitation practices and the drought was beginning to affect education and health facilities as increasing water scarcity would force some to cease operations.
The end of project Evaluation on the UNICEF/GOK ECHO funded Response to the Drought Emergency 2004-2005 on Health and Nutrition, Water and Sanitation in Northern Kenya was commissioned by UNICEF. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of delivery of the health, nutrition, water and sanitation interventions during the response to the recent and some what on going drought emergency” and was conducted in Isiolo, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera districts.
The consultants used participatory methodologies such as key interviews, focus group discussions, and field observations, among others. Scoring on the overall performance of the project and an audit on achievement of outputs was also carried out.
Findings and Conclusions
Major impacts included Water and Sanitation where the cost of buying and transporting water to schools decreased in some cases by 95%; thus high retention rates in ASAL schools, improved health and nutrition with access to curative treatment through the provision of emergency medical kits in the mobile outreach pogrammes with immunizations and vitamin A supplementation. However, a gap was identified with the food security sector in the programme design. Sustainability of interventions was also questionable as the drought is still ongoing.
For better programming, partners need to link up their resources for better harmonization to contribute to better coordination of data during assessment and improved analysis through harmonization of methodologies and approaches by various agencies in capacity building. Interdepartmental co-ordination could have been better at district level (though at national level was still good) with partners so as to contribute to the provision of safety nets to communities thus equipping them on emergency preparedness. There could be better impact if UNICEF partnership links could be improved before any design/intervention of projects in order to promote a more enhanced and effective harmonization of approaches and resources that are sustainable.
PDF files require Acrobat Reader.
Government of Kenya, Humanitarian office of the European Commission (ECHO)