Background: In 2002, UNICEF and UNDP, in collaboration with the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE), commissioned a conflict survey and analysis, with the objective of mapping out the various grassroots conflicts in 12 States of Sudan. The states covered by this analysis have over 32% of Sudan's 32 million population lying mostly in the central part of the country, with the exception of Equatoria. The two UN agencies had a common interest in their attempt to address grassroots conflicts in Sudan in accordance with their mandates. They also faced a common problem: inadequacy of data on conflict and peace, especially in areas of/at risk of violent conflicts. The study identified a number of grassroots conflicts in the nine focus states in northern Sudan targeted by the MICS survey and in accessible areas in South Sudan. Several indicators suggest that a number of areas, in particular those termed as "transactional areas", in Sudan will continue to experience conflicts in future, with varying impacts on the post-conflict situation of the country. Such areas include Darfur and Kordofan, the Upper Nile Region (in particular, Jonglei and Unity States), and Eastern Equatoria.
Some of the areas in this report fall within what are generally referred to as the "transitional zones" in reference to the current area of the "civil war" in Sudan. The description and analysis of the communities in these areas will be from the point of view of grass-roots conflicts whose impact on service delivery and future stability of the areas appear to be significant. The report will attempt to present a brief synopsis of each conflict area with regards to the historical background of the conflicts, their root causes, the main stakeholders, and impact on the communities. The principal physical characteristics of the areas will also be summarized in so far as they are relevant to the understanding of the conflicts among the communities, in particular the points that affect the livelihoods and relations of the communities, especially their influence on the present agricultural and pastoral economies of the inhabitants. The information given should be sufficient to assist in the discussion of the potentialities of the areas for development options for alternative livelihood interventions in order to reduce or eliminate conflicts or threats to future conflicts.
The data used in these cases is derived from the reports of the 2002 Conflict Mapping Survey and Analysis. Visits were made to two areas: Ed Daein in South Darfur and Sobat/Canal Area in Upper Nile in order to fill the gaps in the information collected during the previous survey. Additional information was obtained from historical and other secondary sources.