Author: Enrique Ipiña Melgar, Karen Hickson, Josefina Huamán de Joseph, Verónica González del Castillo and Patricia MacLaughlin de Arregui. Lucien Back, Joaquín González-Alemán; UNICEF NYHQ
The Peru-UNICEF Country Programme Evaluation (CPE) was prepared in 2003 at the request of UNICEF Country Office in Lima in consultation with the Government of Peru. The aim of the CPE was to support the Mid-Term Review conducted in October 2003. The exercise was carried out by a team of consultants under the direct supervision of the Evaluation Office at UNICEF Headquarters in New York, and the support of The Americas and Caribbean Regional Office (TACRO). The evaluation was a pilot exercise of the “Country Programme Evaluation Methodology and Guidance Development Project,” funded by DFID, United Kingdom.
The goals of the Evaluation were to appraise the relevance and effectiveness of the Country Programme of Cooperation (CPC), as well as the sustainability and replicability of its results. Particular attention was given to the programme design and approach, its comparative advantage in the evolution of the national context, the implementation of the human rights-based approach and the way risks were both analyzed and managed. The CPE focused mainly on the current Country Programme of Cooperation (2001-2005), but it also took into account the results and experiences of the previous Programme (1996-2000).
UNICEF-Peru is known as a leader for its conceptualization and experimentation in the implementation of the Human Rights-Based Approach. This reputation, which goes beyond Latin America, is a key result of the Country Programme of Cooperation. The CP has worked together with the Government by supporting the National Plans of Action for Children (NPAC) and influencing them. The ongoing NPAC 2002-2010 received substantial support from UNICEF, which helped the Government to ensure that it complied with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The CPC provided assistance in the development of the NPAC budget and is now lending its support to design an adequate system for monitoring results.
The current CPC has a programme budget of around $5 million annually (including a relatively small contribution to Regular Resources from UNICEF and another, more significant amount to Other Resources from external partners). The CPC has supported many sectoral activities under the life-cycle strategic approach, which allows to address children and adolescents’ rights. Activities varied from lobbying to supporting resources mobilization for capacity-building and networking, in order to change attitudes and behaviours to promote social integration and respect of cultural diversity. The target populations of the Initiatives for Social Inclusion Programme live in the Andes and the Amazon, and in periurban areas.
Given that working in remote and isolated areas has many disadvantages, is not always easy to achieve sustainability of results beyond external support, or replicate successful models in other areas. The recent political framework in Peru, aimed at decentralizing development, offers new opportunities. On the basis of two satisfactory projects at local level, which went to regional or national scale and allowed to integrate experiences in the policy package, a more holistic and explicit strategy for public impact should be developed.
The relations with partners should be part of a strategic vision that involves them in the various challenges linked to the achievement of the national goals and the NPAC. The most obvious strategic alliance could be established under the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). Also, it is necessary to create strategic alliances with the private sector. Because of shortages of available resources, it is necessary to convince the private sector of the advantages of investing in children rather than in any other group.
The CPC has room for improvements in the Human Rights-Based Approach to Programming (HRBAP). This programming approach could be systematized through more rigorous capacity analysis exercises that will determine which are the capacities that is necessary to develop at different levels, both for right holders and duty bearers. The analytic dimension of gender equality could be also reinforced.
Also, it may be possible to improve the design of the new CPC by defining goals based on rights that are at the same time measurable at output, outcome and impact levels, and that are also closely interrelated in a wider framework than that of individual projects and programmes. This has to be done in cooperation with UNDAF partners in 2005. Any improvement in the CPC approach and design will contribute to a more adequate follow-up and evaluation, which will have clear benefits in terms of programming accountability, learning processes when sharing experiences and better practices, and implementation of risk analysis and risk management, a dimension that was missing to a large extent in the CPC.
The CPC partners should pay greater attention to the economic dimensions of experiences drawn from the implementation of projects and programmes. It is convenient to generate more accurate information on the investments made and the recurrent costs that need to be covered in the medium- and long-term. Information should include not only UNICEF and Government contributions, but also those made by communities and other partners.
Due to the fact that Peru has a legal framework that allows the promotion of children, adolescents and women’s rights, the goal is that these rights are respected and made effective. For this purpose, it will be necessary that the CPC reinforces even more its actions to strengthen the institutions and the political, economic and social conditions, as well as those related with other areas. The UNICEF-supported Country Programme of Cooperation has the potential to contribute more to this task, both at national, regional and local levels.
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