Children and AIDS
1. With only 5 per cent of the world’s population, Eastern and Southern Africa is home to half the world’s population living with HIV; 48 per cent of the world’s new HIV infections; 55 per cent of the world’s new HIV infections among children; and 48 per cent of the world’s AIDS-related deaths.
2. 34 per cent of people with HIV globally live in Southern Africa, where nine countries (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe) have HIV prevalence rates among adults (15 to 49 years) of over 10 per cent.
3. At an estimated 26.0 per cent, Swaziland has the highest rate in the world, followed by Botswana (23.4 per cent) and Lesotho (23.3 per cent).
4. With 5.6 million people living with HIV (17.3 per cent of adults 15-49), South Africa is home to the world’s largest epidemic.
5. In the past 10 years, new infections among adults have decreased by more than 50 per cent in Botswana, Ethiopia, Malawi, Namibia, Rwanda, Zambia and Zimbabwe; and by more than 25 per cent in Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland.
6. Nonetheless, 17.1 million adults and children are living with HIV in this region, a figure that continues to increase as antiretroviral treatment ensures that millions of people with HIV now survive.
7. 64 per cent of those in need of treatment are now receiving ARVs across the region.
8. In 2011, 72 per cent of pregnant women in need of such services were reached with effective drug regimens.
9. However, with nearly 1 million women who were pregnant and also living with HIV in 2011 – that is more than any other regions around the world – more still needs to be done.
10. Of the 290,000 pregnant women living with HIV that remain in need of PMTCT services, 84 per cent were in Uganda, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, and Tanzania.
11. Only 33 per cent of children in need received antiretroviral treatment.
12. In high-burden countries in Southern Africa, HIV contributes to between 10 and 28 per cent of all deaths among children under five years of age.
13. Over the past 10 years, HIV prevalence among 15-24 year olds has declined significantly in Botswana, Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. However, prevalence rates among young women are on average two and a half times higher than among men of the age group, with considerable variations between and within countries.
14. In 2009, 41 per cent of young men, and 33 per cent of young women in the region had comprehensive knowledge of HIV and AIDS, with only three countries exceeding 50 per cent: Namibia, Rwanda and Swaziland.
15. Where data is available, the percentage of children receiving external support remains low: Only in Swaziland (41 per cent) and Botswana (31 per cent) are significant numbers of vulnerable and orphaned children being reached. In most other countries in the region, only around 20 per cent or less (7 per cent in Tanzania) of these children receive some sort of external support.