Water Sanitation and Hygiene
© UNICEF/NYHQ2008-1062/Christine Nesbitt|
Nigeria, 2008: Hafisa Salisu washes her hands at a latrine block in Zamfara State. New latrines and hand-washing stations were built to accommodate disabled children.|
Access to safe and clean water and sanitation facilities is a basic right of all people, including people with disabilities, the denial of which can have serious implications on their well-being. For example, inaccessible toilet and water facilities are major contributing factors for school dropout among children with disabilities, especially girls.
The access to clean water and basic sanitation is a right also guaranteed under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).
Article 28 in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities focuses on the right of persons with disabilities “to an adequate standard of living for themselves and their families; this includes State Parties duty to ensure equal access to clean water services”.
UNICEF aims to meet the basic needs, increase self-reliance of individuals, and provide opportunities for persons with disabilities to contribute to the family and community. This can be done by:
- Having a clear understanding of the disabilities within the target population;
- Inclusion of the specific needs of people with disabilities in access and use of WASH facilities and services;
- Advocacy and support to policy development and capacity building of WASH professionals in recognizing and responding to the specific needs of people with disabilities;
- Pay specific attention to disability in WASH in school s programmes: Effective WASH in Schools programmes seek to remove barriers by promoting inclusive design. Toilets and washstands, for example, need to be customised to meet the wide range of needs of children with disabilities;
- Appropriate consultation with people with disabilities in developing/designing WASH interventions at household level, for institutions/schools/hospitals, camps of internally displaced people (IDP);
- Addressing issues of self-reliance and dignity of people with disabilities in access to suitable WASH facilities and services;
- Monitoring, evaluating and reporting of WASH programs with a specific attention to people with disabilities so that appropriate steps can be taken to fulfil the rights of people with disabilities in WASH programmes.
- Water and Sanitation for Disabled People and other Vulnerable Groups: designing services to improve accessibility - Document - Presentation, Jones, H.E. and Reed, R.A. WEDC, Loughborough University: UK, 2005.
- WaterAid - Accessibilité des infrastructures communautairesd’adduction d’eau potable, d’assainissement et d’hygiène. Technical Briefing Paper. Contact Wateraid for a copy. WaterAid Madagascar, 2010.
- How to build an accessible environment in developing countries: Manuals 1-3 - Overview of key issues involved in building an accessible environment. Manual 2 is specifically on access to WASH issues. A technical manual that is very well illustrated and clearly written so that it can be followed even without a high degree of technical knowledge or advanced building skills, Handicap International France, Cambodia Program, 2008.
- Equity and inclusion: Rights based approach - PDF from Wateraid - A review of water, sanitation and hygiene from a rights based approach, with emphasis on how to consider and address accessibility throughout the lifespan. Disability is given particular emphasis. Gosling L. London, WaterAid, 2010.
- Water and sanitation issues for persons with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries - A literature review links between WASH and children and adults with disabilities, with emphasis on evidence based literature review, and identification of current gaps in theory and practice. Groce N, Bailey N, Lang R, Trani JF, Kett M. Journal of Water and Health, 2011.
- The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation - Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. This paper looks at the benefits of, and access barriers to, clean water and sanitation for people with disabilities. Sustainability 2012, 4(11), 3023-3041.
- Water and sanitation for disabled people and other vulnerable groups: designing services to improve accessibility - A key reference that summarizes much of the current technical knowledge available on how to design and implement water and sanitation sources for persons with disabilities. Should be reviewed by anyone involved in planning for and implementing an accessible WASH programme, Jones H. Reed B. Loughborough, Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), 2005. Preview the book on Google Books.
- Guidelines for planning a barrier-free environment a practical manual to improve physical accessibility in Afghanistan - PDF from STEPS - A down to earth manual with a number of helpful insights and clear information, Ferneeuw S.Lyon, STEPS Consulting Social, 2005.
- Water, sanitation, hygiene and inclusive education, Enabling Education Network - A summary of important concerns relating to how accessible water and sanitation facilities are a critical component of ensuring that disabled children are able to attend school. While information is geared to educational settings, much of the information is also applicable to other public spaces, 2010.