赞比亚

背景


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本页内容将被译成中文。

While the overall economic outlook in Zambia has been brightening, many Zambians have yet to share in the benefits: 64 per cent of the population lives on less than $1 a day. Government austerity measures have tamed inflation and introduced fiscal discipline, but these strategies have also hindered the delivery of social services. Zambia has been very hard hit by HIV/AIDS; the adult prevalence rate is over 16 per cent. 

Issues facing children in Zambia

  • As a result of mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV/AIDS, more than 30,000 children are born HIV-positive each year.
  • AIDS has left a generation of orphans in its wake: more than 20 per cent of Zambian children have lost one or both parents. Households with widows and orphans often lack the resources to cultivate sufficient food. Some 75,000 children live on the street.
  • Malaria is the leading killer of children.
  • About 50 per cent of children under age 5 are affected by undernutrition; anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are widespread.
  • Zambia’s health-care system faces shortages of drugs, equipment and qualified personnel, especially in rural areas.
  • Only 36 per cent of the rural population has access to improved drinking water sources.
  • Thanks to the elimination of tuition fees, primary-school enrolment rates have increased; the gender gap is less than 1 per cent. However, there is a severe teacher shortage, and many students do not master fundamental skills in language and mathematics.

Activities and results for children

  • A large influx of international aid has galvanized Zambia’s response to the AIDS epidemic. UNICEF has launched a major initiative to procure anti-retroviral drugs, along with supplies for rapid HIV testing. Programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission now exist in 110 health-care facilities.
  • Deaths from measles and malaria have declined significantly in recent years.
  • UNICEF sponsors biannual Child Health Weeks throughout Zambia, providing an integrated package of vitamin-A supplements, de-worming, and immunizations.
  • UNICEF formed a coalition to fight domestic violence and abuse, coordinating a major media campaign and enlisting the involvement of Zambia’s president and first lady.
  • UNICEF supported a feeding program in 61 schools. The ‘Go Girls’ outreach campaign focused on improving girls’ access to education.
  • Life-skills curriculum is raising awareness among young people about HIV and malaria prevention.
  • The introduction of an effective reading comprehension programme in primary schools has improved literacy. UNICEF has trained 4,000 teachers and provided learning materials to expand this curriculum to community schools serving disadvantaged children.
  • UNICEF assisted in building and rehabilitating hundreds of wells, latrines, and hand-washing facilities, bringing clean water and sanitation to thousands of families and hundreds of schools.

 

 

基本指示数

五岁以下儿童死亡率排名

17

1990年五岁以下儿童死亡率

179

2009年五岁以下儿童死亡率

141

1990年一岁以下婴儿死亡率

108

2009年一岁以下婴儿死亡率

86

2009年新生儿死亡率

35

2009年总人口(千)

12935

2009年全年出生人数(千)

549

2009年全年五岁以下死亡人数(千)

74

2009年人均国民收入(美元)

970

2009年出生时预期寿命(年)

46

2005至2008年成人识字率*

71

2005至2009年小学净入学率/出席率*

80

2000至2009年40%收入最低家庭占总收入百分比*

11

2000至2009年20%收入最高家庭占总收入百分比*

55

定义和数据来源 [popup]

资料来源: 2009年世界儿童状况官方汇集

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