埃塞俄比亚

背景


This map does not reflect a position by UNICEF on the legal status of any country or territory or the delimitation of any frontiers.

本页内容将被译成中文。

Despite recent economic growth and sorely needed rainfall, poverty and hunger remain widespread in Ethiopia. Millions continue to face chronic food insecurity and water shortages. Much of the population lacks access to clean water, health care and education. A lingering border dispute with Eritrea has threatened to escalate.

Issues facing children in Ethiopia

  • Malnutrition is responsible for more than half of all deaths among children under age five. The number of chronically malnourished children has decreased since 1996, but remains alarmingly high.
  • Rates of access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation have been improving in recent years, helping reduce the number of deaths due to diarrhoea, which currently accounts for around 20 per cent of under-five mortality.
  • Immunization rates for the major vaccine-preventable diseases are around 80-90 per cent.
  • Ethiopia had been polio-free for three years, but 19 cases were reported between December 2004 and October 2005.
  • The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is 4.4 per cent, and the spread of the virus has slowed. Approximately 1.5 million people are living with HIV, some 120,000 of them children. 
  • Ethiopia is home to 4 million orphans, or 12 per cent of all children. More than half a million of these were orphaned as a result of AIDS.

Activities and results for children

  • UNICEF and its partners provided vitamin A supplementation and/or de-worming to nearly 9 million children. Almost half a million malnourished children and 260,000 pregnant and lactating women received supplementary feeding. UNICEF’s partnership with the World Food Programme saves an estimated 100,000 lives per year.
  • Three million insecticide-treated bed nets have been distributed, and they have proven to be an effective tool in the fight against malaria. In targeted areas, three quarters of women and children now sleep under bed nets.
  • Fifteen million children were inoculated against polio during five National Immunization Days. Another 1.2 million children received measles vaccinations.
  • UNICEF and its partners brought safe drinking water, sanitary latrines, hygiene education and/or water-purification products to nearly a million people.
  • The school enrolment rate, especially among girls, continues to increase, helping to close the gender gap. UNICEF helped to build 250 temporary schools for 50,000 children.
  • Since 2003, more than half a million people – more than half of them women and children – have voluntarily resettled as part of an ambitious government programme to move a total of 2.2 million people out of food-insecure areas.
  • UNICEF and its partners provided emergency relief to 50,000 people displaced by flooding in the Gode area, and to 7,000 people affected by a volcano eruption in Afar.

 


     

     

    基本指示数

    五岁以下儿童死亡率排名

    29

    1990年五岁以下儿童死亡率

    210

    2009年五岁以下儿童死亡率

    104

    1990年一岁以下婴儿死亡率

    124

    2009年一岁以下婴儿死亡率

    67

    2009年新生儿死亡率

    36

    2009年总人口(千)

    82825

    2009年全年出生人数(千)

    3132

    2009年全年五岁以下死亡人数(千)

    315

    2009年人均国民收入(美元)

    330

    2009年出生时预期寿命(年)

    56

    2005至2008年成人识字率*

    36

    2005至2009年小学净入学率/出席率*

    45

    2000至2009年40%收入最低家庭占总收入百分比*

    23

    2000至2009年20%收入最高家庭占总收入百分比*

    39

    定义和数据来源 [popup]

    资料来源: 2009年世界儿童状况官方汇集

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