Updated 18 February 2014
In 2014, UNICEF and partners plan for:
children aged 6m to 15 years vaccinated against measles
vulnerable boys, girls and adolescents provided with child protection services
internally displaced persons, returnees and host communities accessing safe water for cooking, drinking and personal hygiene
2014 Requirements (January to June): US$75,068,165
Total affected population: 7 million
Total affected children (under 18): 3.75 million
Total people to be reached in 2014: 3.2 million
Total children to be reached in 2014: 1.7 million
Update on humanitarian situation
Since December 2013, the escalation of armed conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the death of hundreds and displacement of hundreds of thousands of civilians. Violence broke out in Juba on 15 December 2013 and quickly spread to other locations in South Sudan. During the first six weeks of the crisis heavy fighting has been taking place in four of the 10 states, causing the displacement of more than 740,000 people within the country and forcing an additional 123,000 people to seek asylum in neighbouring countries.1 While an agreement to cease hostilities was signed on 23 January 20142, its impact on the humanitarian situation is not yet clear and fighting has resumed in the town of Malakal. Though the security situation in the country has calmed somewhat, the situation is still fragile in light of deeply entrenched divisions and grievances, with sporadic clashes having been reported in rural areas of Jonglei, Lakes, Unity and Upper Nile States. Executive Director Anthony Lake activated UNICEF’s corporate emergency procedure for South Sudan on 5 February 2014, making the response a corporate priority and supporting the scale-up of operations. The approaching rainy season will exacerbate the situation for affected populations, increasing secondary displacement both inside and outside South Sudan due to flooding. Particularly for internally displaced and refugee children, there will be greater risk of rights violations, diarrheal disease outbreaks and malnutrition. On top of the current crisis, South Sudan faces high levels of under 5 mortality, at 121 per 1,000 live births,3 and its maternal mortality rate is the highest in the world at 2,054 per 100,000 live births.4 Although 68.7 per cent of the population has access to improved water sources, only 7.4 per cent has access to sanitation facilities.5 Access to education remains a challenge with a net enrolment rate of 42.1 per cent for boys and 36.3 per cent for girls.6 The prevalence of child marriage, gender-based violence and children associated with armed forces remain constant challenges.
2014 programme targets
The following targets are for the first six months of 2014
- 30,891 children aged 6 to 59 months admitted for SAM treatment
- 109,180 pregnant women receiving iron/folate
- 858,600 children aged 6m to 15 years vaccinated against measles
- 560,000 consultations for children under 5, antenatal services, deliveries and post-natal care
- 450,000 internally displaced persons, returnees and host communities accessing safe water for cooking, drinking and personal hygiene
- 450,000 internally displaced persons, returnees and host communities accessing an improved sanitation facility
- 450,000 internally displaced persons, returnees and host communities receiving hygiene promotion training and/or using a basic hygiene kit
- 100,000 vulnerable boys, girls, and adolescents affected by the crisis are provided with child protection services
- 80,000 school-aged children will access protective and safe temporary learning spaces
In the first six months of 2014, UNICEF will support the national response to the humanitarian needs of about 3.2 million people affected by conflict and displacement in South Sudan as well as continuing support to the refugee caseload. UNICEF is the cluster lead for the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), nutrition and education clusters, and the child protection area of responsibility (AoR). UNICEF will continue to manage the core emergency pipelines, pre-positioning supplies across the country ahead of the rainy season to enable an effective emergency response sector wide.
UNICEF’s response plan contributes to the inter-agency Crisis Response Plan strategic objectives and aims to provide humanitarian assistance and protection tailored to the needs of girls, boys, women and men affected by the crisis (internally displaced, host communities, and refugees) in accordance with the Core Commitments for Children in Humanitarian Action to reduce morbidity and mortality and ensure the protection and participation of affected populations. The key programme priorities are: disease outbreak prevention, preparedness and response with a focus on measles and diarrheal disease (including cholera) involving close collaboration between WASH, nutrition and health sectors; protection of children, focused on preventing and responding to recruitment and other grave violations; return to learning for displaced children and children in vulnerable host communities to provide a protective environment and entry point for other programme interventions including health, nutrition, WASH and child protection; preparedness for the rainy season including pre-positioning of supplies and establishment of programmes in locations likely to become inaccessible during the rains.
This will be achieved by addressing the risk of water borne diseases through the provision of potable water, latrines and supplies, as well as through hygiene promotion, and by facilitating the availability of WASH services at nutritional centres.
UNICEF will also play a pivotal role in the immunization programme, protecting vulnerable groups from vaccine-preventable diseases by procuring and transporting all vaccines, materials, cold chain equipment and implementing an integrated Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI).
The nutrition situation in South Sudan remains very serious and UNICEF will scale up its response with the aim to prevent and respond to severe acute malnutrition. The nutrition response will also focus on prevention through micronutrient supplementation and the promotion of appropriate feeding practices.
Community-based networks working on child protection interventions will be expanded, and information will be disseminated about landmines, prevention of gender-based violence and child recruitment. Children formerly associated with armed groups will be provided with reintegration support that emphasizes livelihood skills. Temporary protective learning spaces and pedagogic materials for emergency-affected children will also be provided.
The major challenges are logistical as well as the on-going insecurity. With 60 per cent of the country cut off from road travel during the rainy season, costly air transport is essential to maintaining humanitarian operations while insecurity severely restricts access by road during the dry season, making pre-positioning a challenge.
Results from 2013
UNICEF appealed for US$81,630,641 for 2013, and as of the end October 2013, a total of US$39,505,635, or 48 per cent of requirements, had been received in contributions. UNICEF and partners’ response focused on providing emergency interventions to the most vulnerable people. An improvement in the food security situation in some parts of the country meant that the number of children with SAM needing treatment was lower than anticipated. More people were affected than anticipated by measles outbreaks as the situation deteriorated, and as a result, a larger response was needed. The late arrival of funds for the procurement of emergency supplies, drugs and insecticide-treated nets led to lower results than expected. Due to a marked decrease in the refugee influx from Sudan, targets for the identification of separated and unaccompanied children were not met. The target for mine risk education was exceeded, with the number of local non-governmental organizations implementing mine risk education projects increasing from five to nine and an increase in coverage in two additional states. The targets for education were not met, mainly due to delays in receiving funding but also due to the significant increase in construction costs with the closure of the border between South Sudan and Sudan. WASH targets for access to clean water were not met due to increased drilling costs related to government austerity measures.
Results through 31st December 2013, except for Nutrition, which are through 31 October 2013
UNICEF’s 2014 funding requirements have increased significantly since the beginning of the year due to the deteriorating situation in South Sudan. UNICEF is requesting US$75,068,165 to meet the humanitarian needs of women and children in the first six months of 2014. This HAC update replaces the previous one-year requirements, with needs for the remainder of 2014 to be reviewed at mid-year. Without additional funding, UNICEF will not be able to continue to provide emergency interventions to support the humanitarian response to the country’s multiple crises.
1 South Sudan Humanitarian Country Team, Response Plan, South Sudan Crisis, January – June 2014, prepared by the HCT.
2 Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance, ‘South Sudan Crisis Situation report # 14 as of 27 January 2014’, OCHA.
3 The United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization, the World Bank and the United Nations, Levels and Trends in Child Mortality Report 2012, estimates developed by the UN inter-agency group for child mortality estimation, UNICEF, WHO, the World Bank and the UN, Geneva, New York and Washington, D.C., 2012, p. 20.
4 The United Nations Development Programme, Annual Report 2011/2012: The sustainable future we want, UNDP, p. 25.
5 Ministry of Health and National Bureau of Statistics, ‘South Sudan Household Health Survey’, 2010, pp. 33-35.
6 Ministry of General Education and Instruction, ‘Education Statistics’, 2012, pp. 43.