In 2013, UNICEF and partners plan for:
children under 5 and 7,400 pregnant and lactating women provided with multi-micronutrient supplementation
IDPs have access to safe drinking water
children provided with safe access to community spaces
2013 requirements (US$)
Recent political reforms in Myanmar have led to ceasefires between several state and non-state armed groups, but conflicts still continue in Rakhine and Kachin states. Violence against ethnic minority populations has led to the displacement of 180,000 people. Inter-communal violence since June 2012 in Rakhine State has resulted in mass displacement and loss of lives and livelihoods. An estimated 115,000 people are displaced and accommodated in tents, temporary shelters and host communities.1 In Kachin State and northern Shan State, approximately 70,000 people have been displaced.2 Because of the already low level of access to water supply and sanitation facilities, the provision of water and sanitation facilities is a top priority in both states. In particular, latrines and hygiene promotion are urgently needed. Myanmar also faces high rates of child and maternal malnutrition. The outbreak of communicable diseases and the existing global acute malnutrition rates of 3.8 per cent in Kachin and 10.3 per cent in Rakhine3 will be exacerbated by the continued conflicts. In Rakhine State alone, 115,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs) are confined to camps, are unable to access education and livelihood activities, and have limited access to health care.
Disaster data indicate that medium- to large-scale natural disasters, such as floods, cyclones, storms and earthquakes, are likely to occur every few years in Myanmar.4 Combined with the fragile cease-fires in Mon, Chin and Kayin and the active conflicts in Rakhine and Kachin, this means that Myanmar’s vulnerability to disasters remains high.
The situation demands a proactive approach to child protection and equitable access to services in a context where active conflicts, fragile cease-fires, conflict resolution, peace building initiatives and ongoing political reforms coexist simultaneously. Opportunities for needs assessment in newly accessible areas, responding to IDPs’ needs, demining support, and accessing non-state armed groups in non-government controlled areas will need to be explored further.
Planned results for 2013
2013 Programme Targets
- 1,870 malnourished children receive therapeutic and supplementary feeding
- 16,000 children under 5 and 7,400 pregnant and lactating women provided with multi-micronutrient supplementation
- 630,000 women and children immunized with polio, measles, pentavalent and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines.
- 30,000 children access lifesaving curative interventions
- 39,000 families receive two LLINs, and 17,000 malaria cases are treated with antimalarial drugs
- 65,000 IDPs have access to safe drinking water, and 11,000 internally displaced families have access to sanitary latrines, bathing and washing areas
- 65,000 IDPs gain increased awareness on personal hygiene and are able to improve their hygiene practices with provided items
- 7,000 children in Kachin and 9,000 children in Rakhine provided with safe access to community spaces for socialization, play and learning
- 16,000 children benefit from strengthened child protection mechanisms
- 3,000 emergency-affected primary schoolchildren in Rakhine State accessing quality education through temporary safe learning spaces, with provision for safe water, sanitation and hygiene
HIV and AIDS
- 34,000 emergency-affected people in Kachin State have access to information on HIV prevention, care and treatment
UNICEF will continue to work with its partners to respond to the humanitarian needs of children affected by conflict. As WASH sector cluster lead, UNICEF will work with line ministries and NGOs for improved access to water and sanitation facilities, increased awareness and improved hygiene conditions to reduce the risk of an outbreak in water- and food-borne diseases. As nutrition sector lead, UNICEF will support the scale-up of lifesaving nutrition interventions through therapeutic treatment, micronutrient supplementation, infant feeding, nutrition education, and counselling to mothers and communities. To prevent the spread of communicable diseases, UNICEF will provide immunizations, lifesaving curative interventions, antimalarial treatment and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Temporary safe learning spaces will be built in selected IDP camps, local teachers will be trained, and essential learning packages will be provided to all school-aged children. Shift systems will be established in schools in order to cater to as many children in the camps as possible. Child-Friendly Spaces will provide psychosocial support to children and their caregivers, and child protection networks will be strengthened. Services to prevent new HIV infections among children and adults, and to treat those infected with HIV, will be provided. Interventions will aim to be conflict-sensitive and adopt a ‘do no harm’ approach.
Results from 2012
Emergency funds of US$3,552,027 were received for humanitarian response in 2012, allowing UNICEF and partners to respond to the humanitarian needs of displaced persons in Kachin and Rakhine States. Owing to security reasons, the response in Rakhine commenced and only became fully operational at the end of 2012, when access was secured. In Kachin State, psychosocial support was provided to 3,803 girls and 3,481 boys through 153 community facilitators working in 47 Child-Friendly Spaces. Water supply and sanitation facilities were established in Kachin State and are also being set up in Rakhine State, where hygiene promotion has featured strongly in UNICEF’s response. Malnourished children received necessary treatments, and LLINs were provided to over 5,000 families in both states. Peace building in education was supported through the wider life skills-based education curriculum.
UNICEF funding requirements for 2013
In line with the country’s inter-agency 2013 Consolidated Appeals Process, UNICEF is requesting US$6,158,000 to meet the humanitarian needs of children in Myanmar in 2013. Without additional funding, UNICEF will face limitations in supporting critical WASH services to internally displaced persons facing the risk of outbreaks of water- and excreta-related diseases, as well as meeting the health and nutrition needs of the displaced population. The establishment of Child-Friendly Spaces is vital to ensuring psychosocial support and safe areas for children in camps, and basic supplies for primary education are also urgently needed to uphold children’s right to education.
1 Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ‘Rakhine Response Plan: July 2012–June 2013 (Revision: 16 November 2012).
2 Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ‘Kachin Response Plan: Mar 2012–Feb 2013 (June Revision).
3 Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development and Ministry of Health, Myanmar, Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009–2010: Final report, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development and Ministry of Health, Myanmar, Nay Pyi Taw, 2011, p. 67.