Map of Haiti
UNICEF photo: A toddler and her mother receive packets of oral rehydration salts at the health centre in Grand Dessalines, a town along the Artibonite River. The river is believed to be contaminated with cholera. © UNICEF/NYHQ2010-2149/Marco Dormino A toddler and her mother receive packets of oral rehydration salts at the health centre in Grand Dessalines, a town along the Artibonite River. The river is believed to be contaminated with cholera.

Haiti

Updated January 2014

In 2014, UNICEF and partners plan for:
20,000

children under 5 suffering from severe acute malnutrition receive treatment

500,000

vulnerable people (including 167,000 children aged 1 to 14 years) receive a cholera vaccination against the event of a severe, localized outbreak

134,000

internally displaced persons (including 71,500 women and 27,000 children under 5) are provided with sanitation services in camps

2014 Requirements: US$42,366,400

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Snapshot

Total affected population: 3.2 million
Total affected children (under 18): 1.7 million

Total people to be reached in 2014: 2.5 million
Total children to be reached in 2014: 1.7 million

Although the cholera infection and fatality rates fell sharply in 2013, the cholera epidemic in Haiti is still the largest in the world.1 As of September 2013, 80 per cent of Haitians displaced in 2010 had left the camps and returned to their communities or benefited from relocation programs. There are, however, more than 172,000 people still living in camps, and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) estimates that there will be 145,000 people still living in camps in 2014. Girls and women living in camps and urban slums remain vulnerable to sexual and gender-based violence. In 2013, improved agricultural production reduced the number of food insecure people and the 2012 demographic health survey showed that the rate of children under 5 with acute malnutrition was cut in half, from 10 per cent in 2005/2006 to 5 per cent in 2012. Pockets of chronic food insecurity remain, however. Although the 2013 Atlantic hurricane season was unusually quiet, Haiti remains exposed to multiple hazards, including flooding, hurricanes and earthquakes. Poverty, environmental degradation, political fragility and limited infrastructure and basic services add to Haiti’s vulnerability, and leave the country with very poor disaster resilience. A natural disaster of a significant scale would undermine Haiti’s fragile gains, and also put children at risk of separation. While humanitarian action in Haiti has helped improve the lives of children, significant needs remain that require sustained engagement.

Humanitarian strategy

2014 programme targets

Nutrition

  • 20,000 children under 5 suffering from SAM receive treatment
  • 1.5 million children under 5 provided with micronutrient supplementation

Health

  • 500,000 vulnerable people (including 167,000 children between 1 and 14 years) receive a cholera vaccination against the event of a severe, localized outbreak
  • 100,000 disaster-affected people (including 33,000 children) benefit from preventive and curative health interventions

WASH

  • 134,000 internally displaced persons (including 71,500 women and 27,000 children under 5) provided with sanitation services in camps
  • 450,000 people in rural and urban areas of cholera persistence benefit from sensitization, cholera supplies (cholera kits, aquatabs), rehabilitation of water points, protection of water sources and wells, hygiene promotio

Child protection

  • Psychosocial kits to support 150,000 children and non-food items pre-positioned for 50,000 families affected by an emergency
  • 5,000 benefit from family tracing and reintegration follow-up

Education

  • 40,000 school-aged children continue their education after an emergency

In 2014, UNICEF will support the Government of Haiti on the 10 year plan for cholera elimination, focusing on reducing mortality and morbidity and strengthening government capacity to lead and implement the response. Following reports of cholera cases, UNICEF will work with non-governmental organizations to support the Department of Water and Sanitation to deliver a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) response, including investigating cases, repairing water points, distributing hygiene kits and sensitizing communities on cholera prevention. UNICEF will strengthen its sustainable WASH response to meet the requirements of the National Plan for the Elimination of Cholera in Haiti, targeting 450,000 people in the most affected areas. UNICEF will also work closely with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to strengthen the capacity of the Ministry of Health to carry out epidemiological surveillance, case management, health promotion and vaccination. Working with partners, UNICEF will support the Government to improve sanitation in camps, benefitting approximately 134,000 internally displaced persons, including about 71,500 women and 27,000 children under 5. UNICEF will also strengthen national capacity to prevent and reduce malnutrition by supporting improved access to treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM), distribution of therapeutic food and promotion of breastfeeding. UNICEF will continue to support the development of a system for protecting children during disasters, which will involve social service entities, law enforcement agencies and non-governmental actors. Support will include strengthening the capacity of social service call centres for children and supporting simulation exercises to strengthen existing child protection mechanisms and procedures, focusing on separation and violence during emergencies. UNICEF will support the Ministry of Education to promote disaster risk reduction, including by constructing hazard-resistant schools and providing disaster risk reduction education. In anticipation of the 2014 hurricane season, UNICEF will continue to support the Government to prepare for and respond to disasters, including by pre-positioning a multi-sector contingency stock in five departments. As WASH cluster lead, and as a key member of the health and protection clusters, UNICEF will also continue to coordinate with line ministries and more than 50 non-governmental organizations.

Results from 2013

UNICEF appealed for US$21,130,000 for 2013, and as of the end of October 2013, a total of US$7,455,221, or 35 per cent of requirements, had been received in contributions. In 2013, UNICEF and its partners focused on delivering programmes while strengthening national capacity. Working with partners, UNICEF developed a strategy for 2013-2015 to support the Government to eliminate cholera. UNICEF supported the nationwide distribution of 16,000 cholera prevention kits at the community level and 1,000 kits at cholera treatment centres. UNICEF also supported non-governmental organizations to sensitize 50,000 people on cholera and provided health centres with 4,120 rapid diagnostic tests. In high-risk areas, over 113,000 people were vaccinated against cholera and water points were rehabilitated, serving a population of over 50,000. In 2013, 47,000 suspected cholera cases were reported, less than seven per cent of the total 689,448 cases reported since the outbreak in 2010. The case fatality rate was reduced by less than one per cent. To prevent disease outbreaks in camps, UNICEF supported the repair of a discharge site, as well as the removal of sludge from latrines in 200 camps and seven cholera treatment centres, benefitting more than 200,000 people. UNICEF also supported two social service call centres for children, and supported the appointment of protection and emergency focal points in all 10 departments. UNICEF strengthened the capacity of 175 Red Cross volunteers to provide immediate psychosocial assistance nationwide, focusing on women and children’s rights. In education, UNICEF supported trainings on disaster risk reduction for teachers, inspectors and children. Working closely with the Ministry of Education, UNICEF also supported the roll out of pilot projects testing 14 schools in Port-au-Prince as disaster risk reduction ‘hubs’. UNICEF also worked in partnership with the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) and in coordination with line ministries to support the Department of Civil Protection to pre-position a multi-sector contingency stock. UNICEF supported the WASH cluster, including by supporting the Government to assume a leadership role in WASH. UNICEF also participated in the protection, health and camp coordination and camp management clusters. Limited funding made it difficult to support preparedness and disaster risk reduction, and as a result, there were inadequate supplies and programs to support the development of capacity at the community level. Although Haiti was spared hurricanes and tropical storms in 2013, if funding for preparedness and disaster risk reduction is not forthcoming, there could be significant gaps in the coming years. There was also a shortage of funding for providing basic services in camps, which led to the deterioration of services and in health, sanitation and protection.

Results through 31 October 2013 unless noted
* No support was delivered as no disaster in 2013 required this intervention.
** The 124,500 pupils reported at mid-year relates to distributions completed during the first semester of the year.

Funding requirements

In line with the country’s inter-agency 2014 Strategic Response Plan, UNICEF is requesting US$42,366,400 to meet the humanitarian needs of children in Haiti in 2014. Without additional funding, UNICEF will be unable to support the national response to the country’s continuing cholera epidemic, including providing internally displaced persons facing the spread of cholera with critical WASH services. Basic supplies for pre-positioning are also required to enable UNICEF and its partners to respond rapidly to emergencies.

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1 Rebaudet, Stanislas and Renaud Piarroux, Epidemiological aspect of UNICEF support to the National Elimination Plan of Cholera in Haiti: Interim Report Draft 2, November 2013, p.9.