Eastern and Southern Africa
2013 requirements (US$)
Natural disasters and humanitarian crises continue to pose a serious threat to child survival, protection and development across Eastern and Southern Africa. In 2012, food insecurity, political instability and conflict, epidemics and natural disasters all increased, yet most countries remain too under-resourced to respond effectively. Since the major emergency in the Horn of Africa in 2011, famine conditions have receded in southern Somalia, but progress is fragile and more than 8 million people in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia remain in need of assistance.
The other significant emergency in the region has been in South Sudan, where inter-communal violence in early 2012 affected upwards of 170,000 people, most seriously in Jonglei State. In addition, armed conflict in the Sudan’s South Kordofan and Blue Nile states caused a major influx of refugees into South Sudan in 2012, increasing the number of refugees to 175,000. Many arrived malnourished and in extremely poor health; improving conditions in the camps remains a major challenge. Global acute malnutrition rates in South Sudan range from 17 to 28 per cent1, and under-five mortality stands at 100 deaths per 1,000 live births. Maternal mortality is the highest in the world, reaching 2,054 per 100,000 live births. Altogether, the situation in the country remains extremely fragile.2
After consecutive years of good cereal harvests, a serious food security crisis now looms over Southern Africa, placing more than 6 million people at risk, mainly in Angola, Lesotho, Malawi and Zimbabwe. There are also concerns in 2013 for a possible repeat of past election-related violence in Kenya and Zimbabwe.
Protracted conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012 led to an outflow of 60,000 people to Rwanda, 20,000 to Uganda and 6,000 to Burundi, placing a major burden on existing services. There are few signs that the conflict will abate in the near future. Meanwhile, Burundi is seeking to absorb the assisted return of 36,000 people from Tanzania, following the closing of the Mtabila refugee camp. Political instability and conflict in the region also give rise to a number of child protection concerns, such as issues of separated and unaccompanied children and violence, especially gender-based violence, and psychosocial distress in general.
Planned results for 2013
Results from 2012
For 2012, UNICEF appealed for a total of US$11,915,000, including US$8,913,000 for emergency preparedness and response activities in eight countries in the region. As of 31 October, a total of US$7,253,378, or 61 per cent of the total, had been received.
ESARO: The regional office continued to support the emergency preparedness and response and DRR capacity of all 21 countries in the region. A regional emergency preparedness and response (EPR) training of trainers was carried out, benefiting 18 country offices. Surge missions, capacity-building and cluster support activities were provided to Angola, Comoros, Lesotho, Rwanda Somalia and South Sudan.
Burundi: UNICEF provided nutritional supplies for 24,312 children, measles vaccines for 1,459,304 children, and cholera kits and access to safe water to six flood-affected districts. In addition, 250 children in the Maramvya internally displaced persons (IDP) camp were given access to child-friendly spaces, recreational activities and life skills training.
Malawi: UNICEF provided temporary schooling for nearly 6,300 pupils affected by flooding in Lilongwe, along with medical supplies for 420 patients and tents for construction of four treatment centres. In addition, ‘school-in-a-box’ kits were distributed to 1,600 refugee children from the Horn of Africa.
Rwanda: UNICEF provided access to safe water and sanitation facilities to 14,118 Kigeme camp refugees, set up 10 child-friendly spaces and early childhood development centres benefiting 2,800 children and established an accelerated language learning programme to prepare more than 4,500 refugees children for enrolment in Rwandan schools.
Swaziland: UNICEF provided shelter and related relief items for more than 10,000 people affected by hail storms. In addition, the National Disaster Management Agency was given capacity-building support to allow it to effectively coordinate the response.
Uganda: UNICEF supported refugee needs for access to safe water through the construction of 12 boreholes. Two project officers were trained in rapid family tracing, reunification and child protection in emergencies, and the identification of unaccompanied and separated children is now under way. While the procurement of supplies and training of early childhood development caregivers have also started.
The Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office (ESARO) will continue to provide direct support to country offices’ emergency response capacity to ensure organizational standards for humanitarian action, while advancing the Inter-Agency Standing Committee’s (IASC) Transformative Agenda. In coordination with governments, United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and regional institutions, the regional office will support country office capacity development for disaster management, including disaster risk reduction (DRR) and early recovery. Emphasis will be given to cluster accountabilities and partnership with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in refugee camp settings. UNICEF’s Early Warning, Early Action system will be further strengthened to advance early response capacities. Emphasis will also be given to promoting a more integrated response to the food security crisis, with adequate focus on issues such as child protection.
Burundi Emergency assistance will be provided to children and women affected by drought and food shortages leading to malnutrition; by the effects of heavy rain, flooding and landslides; and by cholera and measles outbreaks. UNICEF will support the Government of Burundi’s response to the humanitarian needs of 3.7 million children, including the reintegration of 22,000 returnee children from Tanzania.
Malawi UNICEF will continue its support to the Government response to the food insecurity crisis that currently affects 13 per cent of the population. Interventions will be in the areas of nutrition, education, water, sanitation and hygiene promotion, and child protection. In preparation for significant flood risk and possible cholera outbreaks, UNICEF will support national capacity-building in emergency preparedness and response and in the pre-positioning of WASH and medical supplies.
Rwanda UNICEF will coordinate with UNHCR to ensure the availability of water supplies and hygiene and sanitation facilities for more than 14,000 refugees in Kigeme camp through partnership with a local NGO working with the national Government and district authorities, Further support and coordination with UNHCR and NGO partners will be undertaken to ensure that more than 6,000 children have their right to education fulfilled through integration into existing schools. Early childhood development services will also be strengthened for more than 1,500 children through partnership with CARE International.
Swaziland UNICEF will strengthen support to essential health services for orphans and vulnerable children in response to a worsening financial crisis that is triggering increased political uncertainty and threatening to undermine education and health services. UNICEF will support the Government’s capacity to prepare for and respond to a variety of hazards associated with extreme weather conditions, increased food insecurity (currently affecting 10 per cent of the population) and the disease burden due to communicable diseases such as cholera, HIV and AIDS, and drug-resistant tuberculosis.
Uganda UNICEF will continue its efforts to reduce the vulnerability of communities to natural disasters by strengthening decentralized emergency preparedness and response capacity. Given the significant risk of disease outbreaks, the country office is focusing on readiness for WASH and health response, as well as child protection and emergency education. Support to Congolese refugees in southwest Uganda will be provided in all areas and especially in WASH, education, early childhood development and child protection.
UNICEF funding requirements for 2013
The regional office is requesting a total of US$20,888,150 to enable timely and effective UNICEF humanitarian action for the region: US$1,760,150 to continue coordinating regional humanitarian action and an additional US$19,128,000 to strengthen capacities for response to humanitarian needs in Burundi, Malawi, Rwanda, Swaziland and Uganda. Regional funds may be used for countries that are not profiled in the following individual country chapters and may not benefit from inter-agency flash appeals to respond to small- or medium-size emergencies.