In 2013, UNICEF and partners plan for:
children identified with severe and moderate acute malnutrition are treated through the community-based management programme
children are treated for severe malnutrition at IPF and OTP have adequate access to safe water during treatment
2013 requirements (US$)
Update of humanitarian situation
Approximately three million children under five1 are potentially affected by the effects of a prolonged drought in 10 out of 18 Angolan provinces. Three years of poor rainfall have particularly impacted five southern provinces: Cunene, Namibe, Kuando Kubango, Benguela and Huila. In Cunene, the hardest hit province, the global acute malnutrition rate has reached 24.4 per cent.2 Crop losses in Cunene are expected to reach up to 80 per cent, which could adversely impact over 500,000 people, especially farmers including semi-nomadic communities and children under 5. This represents 50 per cent of Cunene’s population, of which 130,000 are under 5. An additional five provinces have also been identified as likely requiring emergency assistance.
The repercussions of this emergency are many. Affected populations are facing food shortages, which are compromising health and nutritional status. Surface water has been evaporating and available water is often salinated; boreholes that were constructed or rehabilitated through national programmes have dried up due to reduced rainfall. In some areas, people and animals are forced to use untreated stagnant water, resulting in diarrhoea and other water-borne diseases. As a result of these conditions, an estimated 1,571 cases of cholera have been reported in the provinces of Huila, Cunene and Benguela, with 62 casualties. The Ministry of Health (MINSA) has reported an on-going epidemic of dengue fever (over 900 cases and 10 deaths) and an outbreak of measles in 60 per cent of the municipalities across the country, with malnourished children especially vulnerable.
In municipalities neighbouring Cunene, significant cross-border population movements with Namibia have been reported as people search for water and pastures. This increases the risk of communicable diseases such as HIV and cholera, specifically for vulnerable groups such as children and people living with HIV and AIDS, which is highly prevalent among the southern population of Angola. Protection issues including child labour are facing many young boys who have dropped out of school to join the livestock transhumance. Other children are also at risk of exploitation and abuse, particularly those who are primarily responsible for water collection and looking after siblings when caregivers are away for prolonged periods. Reports indicate that some children are leaving their homes in rural areas in search of employment.3
Affected provinces are remote with difficult access and dispersed and hard-to-reach populations. Drought is a perennial problem with increased intensity over the last three years. The population’s resilience to these climatic changes is continually challenged, with the need to reach marginalized populations and close the equity gap.
Adjusted planned results for 2013
2013 adjusted programme targets
Health and Nutrition
- 1.8 million children under five (over 60 per cent)screened for acute malnutrition in affected provinces; also receive deworming tablets and Vitamin A supplements
- 240,000 children identified with severe and moderate acute malnutrition treated through the community-based management programme
- 216,000 people (36,000 families) living in high-risk drought affected communities provided with safe water and benefiting from improved sanitation and hygiene promotion messages
- 30,000 children treated for severe malnutrition at IPF and OTP have adequate access to safe water during treatment
- Provincial emergency contingency plans, containing Child Protection intervention strategy, are in place
Communication for Development (C4D)
- 80 per cent of the families with children under 5 in affected provinces are reached with key lifesaving practices, including infant and young children feeding, hand washing, hygiene and child protection and care practice
The Government of Angola (GoA) is developing a multi-sector emergency response plan, including nutrition, health, child protection and access to safe and sufficient water and improved hygiene conditions, with the Government addressing HIV in Cunene. These interventions will help to support vulnerable families living in remote areas in terms of food security and protection of agricultural and livestock assets as these represent the majority of household assets. UNICEF in consultation with the Ministry of Health’s Nutrition Section has revised nutrition targets downwards within increased requirements based on lessons learned in setting up community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) programmes in remote areas and for nomadic populations in the last six months; poor road infrastructure and dispersed populations; and the high costs of air shipment of emergency nutrition supplies to Angola. Building the evidence base to show the gravity of the situation has been an immense challenge, and UNICEF is advocating with the Government for improved data collection and reporting of the emergency situation, as well as working with key partners to create a system of sustainable data collection and reporting to ensure a more accurate and targeted response. In addition, UNICEF’s support to the government response includes capacity building at the central and provincial levels and providing direct support to community based interventions. UNICEF will support the Provincial Directorate of Water for maintenance and drilling of wells and monitoring of water quality in Kuando Kubango (targeting 18,000 people), Cunene (54,000), Benguela (54,000), Namibe (36,000) and Huila (54,000). UNICEF will also develop a communication strategy and materials for WASH in drought-affected areas, targeting vulnerable communities. Along with intensive WASH interventions, nutrition interventions including Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition, Vitamin A and Albendazol supplementation and the promotion and support of Infant and Young Child Feeding practices will be expanded to all 10 provinces with focus on the five southern provinces, where community outreach programmes for therapeutic feeding will also be expanded. These interventions will also help in reducing the risk of potential child protection issues. At the government’s request, in order to increase the overall capacity of key child protection actors at the central and provincial levels along with their capacity to address the child protection concerns in emergency situations, UNICEF will support the development of training programme and an operational manual for Child Protection practitioners. UNICEF will support the implementation of an awareness campaign including child protection messages to prevent child labour, neglect, physical violence, etc. Police and protection networks will also be strengthened through capacity-building for prevention and response of child-protection risks.
Results from 2013
UNICEF’s support of the Ministry of Health’s integrated response programme resulted in an unprecedented scale-up of health care access in the 10 most affected provinces. The expansion of facilities and community outreach programmes targeting rural families and capacity building have contributed to the treatment of 63,972 acute malnourished children in 2013, including 14,095 with severe malnutrition. Between June 2012 and May 2013, the number of in-patient facilities (IPFs) increased from 24 to 55, and the number of out-patient treatment centres (OPTs) increased from 5 to 420. Out of these, eight IPF and 129 OTPs opened in 2013. These have been complemented by radio spots on healthy nutrition behaviours, treatment and good practices. UNICEF with the Ministry of Health and an NGO consortium are scaling up CMAM in the 10 provinces to reach at least 60 per cent of children under five. Despite all efforts, the programme has been unable to reach all target numbers set previously due to the difficult geographic terrain, transportation challenges, basic health services available to less than half the population, limited personnel and national capacity, and the presence of few NGOs in the country. In addition, UNICEF supported selected provinces to conduct mop up campaigns to respond to measles epidemics. WASH assessments were carried out in June and, despite funding limitations, UNICEF and the GoA have effectively integrated WASH activities into the nutritional crisis response through the provision at IPFs and OPTs of information materials on drinking water treatment and safe storage; hand washing with soap in health and nutrition centres; and proper use of latrines for safe disposal of excreta. At the CMAM level, specific WASH content (water treatment and safe storage, hygiene and sanitation) has been integrated into the training of over 350 health staff and 2,016 community mobilizers for the CMAM rollout. In child protection, UNICEF is continuing to advocate with the Ministry of Assistance and Social Reintegration (MINARS) and the National Institute of Children (INAC) in order to design a provincial level response.
UNICEF funding requirements for 2013
UNICEF originally requested US$5,300,000 to meet the humanitarian needs of children and women in Angola. However, the prolonged drought now requires an additional US$9.1 million to respond to this emergency, raising the total requirements to US$14.4 million. Despite the US$4,065,322 received in income and in-kind contributions, UNICEF is still facing a funding gap of over US$10.3 million. The Government is leading the response, but humanitarian needs remain, in particular in remote and hard-to-reach areas. The additional funding will focus on improving the monitoring and reporting of the crisis in all affected areas, strengthening WASH interventions due to the critical water shortages, and expanding interventions in other sectors, in particular child protection. Without additional funding, especially for humanitarian needs outside of nutrition, UNICEF will be unable to support the national response to the crisis. Funding requirements will also support improvements towards information collection of reliable and consistent emergency related data to be built into the national data collection system.
All figures in US$; *Includes $1,352,730 from in-kind contributions
1 Based on consultations with the Ministry of Health’s Nutrition Section, May 2012.
2 Based on consultations with the Ministry of Health’s Nutrition Section, May 2013.
3 Ministry of Social Assistance, June 2013.