Participation resource guide

Participation in programme areas

 
 

Participation of working and street children

Amorim, Anita, et al., Gender Equality and Child Labour: A participatory tool for facilitators, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, 2004.
This is a training tool for facilitators working with young people to examine child labour from a gender perspective. It looks at the impact of gender on the options that girls and boys have with respect to opportunities and resources. The main purpose of this training tool is to promote young people’s active involvement in raising awareness about issues of social justice and exerting influence in their communities to bring about change.

Asian Development Bank, Working with Street Children, Exploring ways for ADB assistance, ADB, Manila, 2003.
This publication includes various approaches to working with street and working children and makes recommendations on mainstreaming the concerns of street and working children into ADB operations.

van Beers, Henk, Children’s Participation: Experiences in capacity building and training, Save the Children Sweden, ISBN 91-89366-96-4, Stockholm, 2002.
This book is based on experiences working with street and working children. It deals with developing understanding and skills for children’s participation among professional staff and within organizations. It includes information on the various aspects of training on children’s participation, including measuring the outcomes of such trainings.

Black, Maggie, Opening Minds, Opening Opportunities: Children’s participation in action for working children, Save the Children, London, 2003.
This case study research was commissioned by the Save the Children Alliance Task Group on Children and Work to review the impact and lessons learned from working children’s participation in Bangladesh, Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras, India and Senegal. It illustrates a range of existing participatory initiatives with working children, analyses the impact of participation in their lives and provides recommendations on improving inclusive interventions with working children.

Boyden, Jo, Birgitta Ling and William Myers, What Works for Working Children, Rädda Barnen and UNICEF, 1998.
This book addresses basic questions on child labour, such as: What is the effect of work on children? When is it positive, and when is it negative? What kinds of work help children develop valuable skills and attitudes, and which kinds violate their rights? It approaches these questions from a child-centred perspective in relation to education, health and development, child protection laws, market economy and other related issues.

Cussianovich, Alejandro and Maria A. Marquez, Towards a Protagonist Participation of Boys, Girls and Teenagers, Save the Children Regional Office Sweden, Lima, 2002.
This book was written by one of the leading children’s participation activists in Latin America and deals with prevailing visions and notions of working children’s participation among adults, institutions and children. It examines existing practices and discusses ways to create new  opportunities for the protagonist participation of boys and girls.

Dorning, Karl and Tim O’Shaughnessy, Creating Space for Children’s Participation: Planning with street children in Yangon, Myanmar, World Vision Australia, 2001.
This is a participatory evaluation of a project with street children in Yangon. The research aimed at being a learning and empowering process for children and adults. It includes details of the preparation, planning, design and implementation phases of the project.

Ennew, Judith, Street and Working Children: A guide to planning, Save the Children UK, ISBN 1 84187 032 3, London, 2000 (first published 1994).
This guide is based on practical experiences from around the world. It provides essential information and guidance for professionals dealing with working and street children.

Groves, Leslie, Desk–Based Research on Children’s Participation in Save the Children Child Work Programmes, Report for the Save the Children Task Group on Children and Work, Save the Children, 2003.
This desk review provides examples of good practices in children’s participation in programming on child work. It examines the ‘added value’ and impacts of the participation process on children, programmes and organizations.

International Labour Organization and Save the Children UK, Making History: People, process and participation, Mekong Children’s Forum, ILO and Save the Children, UK, ISBN 974-92944-4-0, Bangkok, 2005.
This report on the Mekong Children’s Forum on Human Trafficking is divided into three parts: Thefirst part looks at ethical and practical considerations of children’s participation; the second part covers the forum proceedings and the third includes recommendations for moving forward.

Lieten, Kristoffel G., Anup K. Karan and Anop K. Satpathy, Children, School and Work, Glimpses from India, IREWOC Foundation and the Institute for Human Development, ISBN 81-88315-12-5, India, 2005.
This book is based on an in-depth survey of 45 children from different rural and urban areas of India. It provides insights into their daily lives and presents their perceptions and interpretations of their daily routine, which includes studying, doing household chores, learning new skills,
working, playing and socializing. It analyses the concepts of participation and child rights and emphasizes the need to focus on the role of children as active agents of change.

Miljeteig, Per, Creating Partnerships with Working Children and Youth, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2000.
From a child-rights perspective, this paper investigates the characteristics and impacts of working children and youth organizing themselves, evaluates the principles of creating partnerships and overcoming barriers to working children’s participation in decision making.

O’Kane, Claire, ‘Street and Working Children’s Participation in Programming for their Rights: Conflicts arising from diverse perspectives and directions for convergence’ in Children, Youth and Environments 13(1), Spring 2003.
Drawing on the experiences of the Butterflies Programme of Street and Working Children in Delhi, India, this paper highlights conceptual and practical lessons learned. By empowering street and working children to reflect on their experiences, articulate their views, plan effective programmes and advocate for their own rights, working children are challenging the status quo regarding children’s place and power in society. The insights gained are relevant to current academic discourse on the social construction of childhoods and to debates concerning good development practice with marginalized children.

Reddy, Nandana and Kavita Ratna, A Journey in Children’s Participation, Concerned for Working Children (CWC), Bangalore, India, 2002.
This document covers more than 20 years of CWC’s experience with children’s participation and turns these into principles and tools that help further the knowledge and practice of children’s participation.

Regional Working Group on Child Labour, Working Children’s Participation in Actions Against the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Asia: Report on rapid assessment conducted April–June 2000, RWG-CL, Bangkok, 2001.
This report shares the findings of a rapid assessment conducted to explore working children’s participation in services and interventions. The assessment provides baseline data and an overview of working children’s participation in the Asia-Pacific region.

Regional Working Group on Child Labour, Learning to Work Together: A handbook for managers on facilitating children’s participation in actions to address child labour, Regional Working Group on Child Labour, ISBN 074-90 865-3-8, Bangkok, 2003.
This book combines lessons learned by working children and adults who have participated in child labour programmes, with insights from the growing literature on this subject. It targets programme managers for promoting children’s participation in programmes to combat child
labour. Key themes include: implementation, monitoring and evaluation, child-to-child, and communication about child labour.

Save the Children, Save the Children’s Position on Children and Work, International Save the Children Alliance, London, 2003.
This paper includes sections on how children define work, their views on the reasons why they work and children’s views on the effects of work in their lives.

Southon, Jeremy and Pralhad Dhakal, A Life Without Basic Service: “Street children say”, Save the Children UK, Nepal, 2003.
This participatory study tries to gain an understanding of street children’s perspectives of their own situation and to encourage more specialized interventions from organizations working with them. The report emphasizes that street children should not be viewed as mere victims in need of aid but should be recognized for their many capacities and coping skills that should be harnessed and supported by organizations through participatory interventions.
Available for download: www.savethechildren.net/nepal/key_work/street_children.html

Wernham, Marie, An Outside Chance: Street children and juvenile justice, an international perspective, Consortium of Street Children, London, 2004.
This report is based on a two-year research and advocacy project by the Consortium for Street Children with partners in Kenya, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and Romania. The report includes children’s accounts of the treatment they received at various stages of the justice system and gives recommendations for reform. It advocates for children’s participation in all decisions affecting them.

West, Andrew, At the Margins: Street children in Asia and the Pacific, ADB, Manila, 2003.
This report gives an overview of the situation of street children in the Asia-Pacific region and provides recommendations for strategic interventions to the ADB. It discusses the factors that make children live and work in the street and outlines frameworks and principles for good practices, including methods of implementation. The report includes practical examples of the participation of street children.

WHO, Working with Street Children: Implementing a street children project: A training package on substance use, sexual and reproductive health including HIV/AIDS and STDs, Module 10, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2000.
This practical guide includes steps that should be followed when implementing a street children project. It outlines a strategic plan and steps needed for situation analysis, project design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

WHO, Working with Street Children: Responsibilities of street educators: A training package on substance use, sexual and reproductive health including HIV/AIDS and STDs, Module 2, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2000.
This training module provides guidelines on the responsibilities and essential characteristics, attitudes, knowledge and basic skills that street educators should possess in order to work effectively with street children. It gives pointers on establishing trust, communication skills, effective speaking and feedback skills, documentation and record-keeping skills and maintaining confidentiality.

Woodhead, Martin, Children’s Perspectives on Their Working Lives: A participatory study in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua, Rädda Barnen, 1998.
This book argues that children’s participation is crucial in the process of combating child labour. Their participation helps to ensure that interventions designed to eliminate exploitative and hazardous child labour are appropriate to the children’s context, locally sustainable and child-centred. It includes a protocol for gathering children’s perspectives.
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